A Modern Story of Animal Advocacy

  • Philip J. SampsonEmail author
Part of the The Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series book series (PMAES)


It is hard to reconcile the assertion that animal-friendliness has increased during the twentieth century, with the unprecedented scale of the violent subjection of animals for food and experimental purposes. Different narratives of the emergence of more compassionate ways of talking about animals are explored, including the languages of Enlightenment humanism and Darwinian science, and the changing face of social modernity. These narratives are shown to be deeply conflicted, with surprisingly little evidence that less cruel attitudes to animals are distinctively the product of modern ideologies or social change. Moreover, as accounts of the origin of more animal-friendly values, they obscure possible sources in the radical religious discourses of animal-human relationships before the twentieth century.


  1. Adams, Carol J. 2011. The Sexual Politics of Meat. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  2. Baehr, Peter. 2001. “The ‘Iron Cage’ and the ‘Shell as Hard as Steel’: Parsons, Weber, and the Stahlhartes Gehäuse Metaphor in the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.” History and Theory 40 (2) (May): 153–169.Google Scholar
  3. Balaska, Maria. 2016. “What Guides Moral Considerations?” Journal of Animal Ethics 6 (1) (Spring): 10–19.Google Scholar
  4. Bentham, Jeremy. 1789 [1970]. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. London: Athlone.Google Scholar
  5. Coetzee, J. M. 2007. “Exposing the Beast: Factory Farming Must Be Called to the Slaughterhouse.” The Sydney Morning Herald, February 22.
  6. Crutzen, Paul J., and Eugene F. Stoermer. 2000. “The ‘Anthropocene’.” Global Change Newsletter 41: 17–18.Google Scholar
  7. Darwin, Charles. 1881 [1959]. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  8. Derrida, Jacques. 2002. “The Animal That Therefore I Am (More to Follow).” Translated by David Wills. Critical Inquiry 28 (2) (Winter): 369–418.Google Scholar
  9. Dooyeweerd, Herman. 1969. A New Critique of Theoretical Thought. Translated by David H. Freeman and William S. Young. Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing. Google Scholar
  10. Foucault, Michel. 1984. “What Is Enlightenment.” In The Foucault Reader, edited by P. Rabinow, 32–50. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  11. Foucault, Michel. 2002. Archeology of Knowledge. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Franklin, Adrian. 1999. Animals and Modern Culture: A Sociology of Human-Animal Relations in Modernity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Gilmour, Michael J. 2014. Eden’s Other Residents: The Bible and Animals. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books.Google Scholar
  14. Goudzwaard, Bob. 1979. Capitalism and Progress. Toronto: Wedge.Google Scholar
  15. Gullone, Eleonora. 2017. “Why Eating Animals Is Not Good for Us.” Journal of Animal Ethics 7 (1): 31–62.Google Scholar
  16. Harwood, Dix. 1928. Love for Animals. New York: Colombia University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hinde, John R. 2000. Jacob Burckhardt and the Crisis of Modernity. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Horkheimer, Max. 2004. The Eclipse of Reason. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  19. Horkheimer, Max, and Theodor W. Adorno. 2002. Dialectic of Enlightenment. Translated by Edmund Jephcott. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hume, David. 1751. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals. London: A. Millar.Google Scholar
  21. Johnson, Lisa. 2017. “On the Suffering of Animals in Nature.” Journal of Animal Ethics 7 (1) (Spring): 63–77.Google Scholar
  22. Kant, Immanuel. 1784 [2001]. Lectures on Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kant, Immanuel. 1784 [2009]. An Answer to the Question “What Is Enlightenment?” London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  24. Leiss, W. 1974. The Domination of Nature. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  25. Levinas, Emmanuel. 1969. Totality and Infinity. Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Levinas, Emmanuel. 1988. “The Paradox of Morality”. In The Provocation of Levinas: Rethinking the Other, edited by Robert Bernasconi and David Wood, 168–180. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Lyotard, Jean-François. 1979. The Postmodern Condition. Translated by Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Marx, Karl. 1844 [1963]. “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts.” In Karl Marx, Early Writings, edited by T. B. Bottomore, 67–134. London: C. A. Watts and Co., Ltd.Google Scholar
  29. Merchant, Carolyn. 2005. Radical Ecology. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Northcott, Michael. 2007. “A Moral Climate.” Third Way, October: 22–25.Google Scholar
  31. Oelschlaeger, Max. 1991. The Idea of Wilderness. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Pattberg, Philipp. 2007. “Conquest, Domination and Control: Europe’s Mastery of Nature in Historic Perspective.” Journal of Political Ecology 14: 1–9.Google Scholar
  33. Peterson, Anna. 2013. Being Animal: Beasts and Boundaries in Nature and Ethics. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Pollan, Michael. 2002. “An Animal’s Place.” New York Times, November 10.Google Scholar
  35. Pollard, Nick. 1995. “The Simple Answer.” Third Way, April: 15–19.Google Scholar
  36. Preece, Rod. 2003. “Darwinism, Christianity, and the Great Vivisection Debate.” Journal of the History of Ideas 64 (3) (July): 399–419.Google Scholar
  37. Preece, Rod, and Lorna Chamberlain. 1993. Animal Welfare and Human Values. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Ryder, Richard D. 1983. Victims of Science—The Use of Animals in Research. London: National Anti-vivisection Society.Google Scholar
  39. Salt, Henry S. 1894. Animal’s Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  40. Salt, Henry S. 1914. The Humanities of Diet: Some Reasonings and Rhymings. Manchester: The Vegetarian Society.Google Scholar
  41. Sampson, Philip J. 2001. 6 Modern Myths. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.Google Scholar
  42. Sampson, Philip J. 2010. “Humans, Animals and Others.” In Intersections in Christianity and Critical Theory, edited by Cassandra Falke, 120–134. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  43. Singer, Peter. 2011. Practical Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Singer, Peter, and Jim Mason. 2006. Eating. London: Arrow Books.Google Scholar
  45. Snow, C. P. 1959 [1998]. The Two Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Taylor, Charles. 2007. A Secular Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Tester, Keith. 1992. Animals and Society: The Humanity of Animal Rights. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. White, Lynn. 1967. “The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis.” Science 155 (3767): 1203–1207.Google Scholar
  49. Willett, Cynthia. 2014. Interspecies Ethics. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Williamson, Craig. 2011. A Feast of Creatures. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oxford Centre for Animal EthicsOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations