Racial Socialization: A Developmental Perspective



Similar to other minority groups, parents of biracial children must prepare and protect children to navigate the harsh realities of being a minority, to instill pride, and to pass on knowledge, traditions, and history. Yet, unlike other minority groups, many parents of biracial children are not minorities and lack firsthand experience with what it means to live beneath this veil. Further, many parents are monoracial and don’t know what it means to be biracial, to embody multiple racial (mis)constructions with few examples or role models to lead the way. This chapter provides a review of the racial socialization literature, explicating unique considerations for biracial families. In addition, this chapter discusses developmentally appropriate strategies, identifying important considerations for preschoolers, school-age children, and adolescents. This chapter concludes with recommendations for future research and considerations for professionals working with biracial children and their families.


Racial socialization Ethnic socialization Preschoolers School-age children Adolescents Minority socialization Cultural socialization Mainstream socialization Egalitarian socialization Color-blind perspective Silent racial socialization Emotional and social development Identity development Parent-child relationship 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Child and Family Development Program, School of Human ServicesHarmon College of Business and Professional Studies, University of Central MissouriWarrensburgUSA

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