Ergonomics Systems Mapping for Professional Responder Inter-operability in Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Events

  • Graham Hancox
  • Sue HignettEmail author
  • Hilary Pillin
  • Spyros Kintzios
  • Jyri Silmäri
  • C. L. Paul Thomas
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 818)


A European consensus was developed as a concept of operations (CONOPS) for cross-border, multi-professional chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) responses. AcciMaps were co-designed with professional responders from military, fire, ambulance, and police services in UK, Finland and Greece. Data were collected using document analysis from both open and restricted sources to extract task and operator information, and through interviews with senior staff representatives (Gold or Silver Command level). The data were represented on the Accimaps as a high level Socio-Technical Systems (STS) map of CBRN response using the themes of communication, planning, action, and reflection. Despite differences between service sectors and in terminology, a macro systems level consensus was achieved for the command structures (Gold, Silver and Bronze), and Hot Zone responders (Specialist Blue Light Responders and Blue Light Responders). The detailed tasks and technologies have been analysed using Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) to represent both complex response scenarios (macro) and detailed technologies (micro interfaces) for detection, diagnosis and decontamination. The outputs from these two systems mapping tools (Accimaps and HTAs) are being used in two field trials/exercises.


Ergonomics CBRN NATO AcciMap Sociotechnical systems 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Design SchoolLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK
  2. 2.HRP Professional Services Ltd.WitneyUK
  3. 3.R&D Project Management DepartmentHellenic NavyAthensGreece
  4. 4.Rescue Services, South-Savo Regional Fire ServicesMikkeliFinland
  5. 5.Centre for Analytical Science, Department of ChemistryLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK

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