Non Vitae Sed Scholae Discimus

About Learning to the Point or the Endless Travel of Research
  • Dominik S. MihalitsEmail author
  • Natalie Rodax
Part of the Cultural Psychology of Education book series (CPED, volume 7)


Study programmes once established as a direct answer to the Bologna Process have led to new bureaucratised versions of higher education. Students are increasingly distanced from their studies by dichotomously distinguishing relevant points from irrelevant points—not genuinely questioning learning for points or what that mode of learning does with ‘them’ personally. Students’ involvement is high when compulsory subjects—and the completion of the course points—can be directly linked to their anticipated professional future. Abstract parameters are seducing us to better assess comparability, but we must not forget that structures and borders are not fading but rather changing and that neoliberal topoi—which with teachers are also entangled with—tend to blur the continuing existence of heterogeneity/borders. Teachers also have to reflect on current proposals to deal with abstraction more directly.


Bologna Process E-learning Involvement Comparability 


  1. Amaral, A., & Magalhães, A. (2004). Epidemiology and the Bologna Saga. Higher Education, 48(1), 79–100. Scholar
  2. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood. A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. The American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnett, J. J., & Tanner, J. L. (Eds.). (2006). Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  4. Benelux Bologna Secretariat (2009). BOLOGNA beyond 2010. (Report on the development of the European Higher Education Area). Leuven: Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve Ministerial Conference.Google Scholar
  5. Capano, G., Regini, M., & Turri, M. (2016). Leading the change in Europe: Early implementation of the ‘Bologna-process’. In G. Capano, M. Regini, & M. Turri (Eds.), Changing governance in universities (pp. 81–97). London: Palgrave Macmillan. Scholar
  6. Fejes, A. (2008). Standardising Europe: The Bologna Process and new modes of governing. Learning and Teaching, 1(2), 25–49.
  7. Floud, R. (2010). The Bologna process: Transforming European Higher Education. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 38(4), 8–15. Scholar
  8. Gergen, K. J. (2006). The relational self in historical context. International Journal for Dialogical Science, 1(1), 119–124.Google Scholar
  9. Grabner, I., Hametner, K., Klinger, M., Westmark, G., & Wrbouschek, M. (2005). Kollektive Orientierungen bei Studierenden bezüglich ihrer Tätigkeit - im Spannungsfeld von Erwartungen aus Gesellschaft, Politik und Umwelt [unpublished report]. Vienna: Universität Wien.Google Scholar
  10. (2018). Bologna-Prozess und Europäischer Hochschulraum - Allgemeine und berufliche Bildung - European Commission. Retrieved 11 April 2018, from
  11. Kettunen, J., & Kantola, M. (2006). The implementation of the Bologna process. Tertiary Education and Management, 12(3), 257–267. Scholar
  12. Koppetsch, C. (2013). Die Wiederkehr der Konformität: Streifzüge durch die gefährdete Mitte. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.Google Scholar
  13. Lohmann, I., Mielich, S., Muhl, F., Pazzini, K.-J., Rieger, L., & Wilhelm, E. (Eds.). (2014). Schöne neue Bildung? Zur Kritik der Universität der Gegenwart. Bilefeld: Transcript.Google Scholar
  14. Mannheim, K. (1929). Ideologie und Utopie. Bonn: Cohen.Google Scholar
  15. McRobbie, A. (2009). The aftermath of feminism: Gender, culture and social change. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  16. Olssen, M., & Peters, M. A. (2005). Neoliberalism, higher education and the knowledge economy: From the free market to knowledge capitalism. Journal of Education Policy, 20(3), 313–345. Scholar
  17. Papatsiba, V. (2006). Making higher education more European through student mobility? Revisiting EU initiatives in the context of the Bologna process. Comparative Education, 42(1), 93–111. Scholar
  18. Przyborski, A., Benetka, G., & Slunecko, T. (2006). Psychology curriculae and the challenge of Bologna: An answer from a cultural science perspective. European Journal of School Psychology, 4(2), 211–225.Google Scholar
  19. Reichert, S., & Tauch, C. (2004). Bologna four years later: Steps toward sustainable reform of Higher Education in Europe. European Education, 36(3), 36–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ruck, N., Slunecko, T., & Riegler, J. (2010). Kritik und Psychologie - ein verschlungenes Verhältnis. Psychologie und Gesellschaftskritik, 33/34(4/1), 45–67.Google Scholar
  21. Sirsch, U., Dreher, E., Mayr, E., & Willinger, U. (2009). What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24(3), 275–292. Scholar
  22. Sin, C., Veiga, A., & Amaral, A. (2016). Bologna Process Implementation Problems. In C. Sin, A. Veiga, & A. Amaral, European Policy Implementation and Higher Education. Analysing the Bologna-Process (pp. 63–82). London: Palgrave Macmillan. Scholar
  23. Wächter, B. (2004). The Bologna process: Developments and prospects. European Journal of Education, 39(3), 265–273. Scholar
  24. (2018). Members—European Higher Education area and Bologna process. Retrieved 13 April 2018, from
  25. Zmas, A. (2015). Global impacts of the Bologna Process: international perspectives, local particularities. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 45(5), 727–747. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sigmund Freud UniversityViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations