Cerebrovascular Anatomy with Clinical Correlation
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Cerebrovascular disease ordinarily comprises about 5–10% of the outpatient practice of a general neurologist, but it is the predominant disorder in the hospital. Thus, the medical student experience is usually skewed toward evaluation and treatment of stroke, a critically important field. Adequate preparation to make the most of an inpatient experience requires a familiarity with vascular anatomy prior to beginning the mandatory rotation, presumably a minimum of 1 month. This will be summarized to emphasize salient features. Discussion of pathology is essential since ischemic strokes (85%) and hemorrhagic strokes (15%) have distinctive clinical and anatomic patterns. Treatment options will be only briefly mentioned since new therapies and management protocols will be constantly emerging. Case reports will be added to illustrate the importance of the history and neurologic examination to determine both the anatomic and pathologic diagnosis, the evaluation indicated, and some current treatment approaches.
KeywordsAneurysm Carotid Hemorrhagic stroke Ischemic stroke Transient ischemic attack Vascular malformation Vertebrobasilar
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