The Biases of Thinking Fast and Thinking Slow

  • Dirk StreebEmail author
  • Min Chen
  • Daniel A. Keim


Visualization is a human-centric process, which is inevitably associated with potential biases in humans’ judgment and decision-making. While the discussions on humans’ biases have been heavily influenced by the work of Daniel Kahneman as summarized in his book “Thinking, Fast and Slow’, there have also been viewpoints in psychology in favor of heuristics, such as by Gigerenzer. In this chapter, we present a balanced discourse on the humans’ heuristics and biases as the two sides of the same coin. In particular, we examine these two aspects from a probabilistic perspective, and relate them to the notions of global and local sampling. We use three case studies in Kahneman’s book to illustrate the potential biases of human- and machine-centric decision processes. Our discourse leads to a concrete conclusion that visual analytics, where interactive visualization is integrated with statistics and algorithms, offers an effective and efficient means to overcome biases in data intelligence.


Human-centered Process Kahneman Probabilistic Perspective Human Heuristics Personality Sketch 
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Part of this work was funded by the German federal state’s Initiative of Excellence via the Graduate School of Decision Sciences at the University of Konstanz.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Data Analysis and Visualization Group at the University of KonstanzKonstanzGermany
  2. 2.Oxford e-Research Centre at the University of OxfordOxfordUK

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