Bias by Default?

A Means for A Priori Interface Measurement
  • Joseph A. CottamEmail author
  • Leslie M. Blaha


Systems have biases. Their interfaces naturally guide a user toward specific patterns of action. For example, modern word-processors and spreadsheets are both capable of handling word wrapping, checking spelling and calculating formulas. You could write a paper in a spreadsheet or could do simple business modeling in a word-processor. However, their interfaces naturally communicate the function for which they are designed. Visual analytic interfaces also have biases. We outline why simple Markov models are a plausible tool for investigating that bias, even prior to user interactions, and how they might be applied to understand a priori system biases. We also discuss some anticipated difficulties in such modeling and touch briefly on what some Markov model extensions might provide.



This research was sponsored by the Analysis in Motion Initiative at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA

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