Man is always fascinated with colors, especially when edibles are under consideration; we are all captivated with colorful foods. Betalain is one of the important natural pigments of the food industry and safe from the health point of view. Due to inextensive research in chemistry, biosynthesis and ecophysiological factors affecting betalain accumulation and evocation in situ/ex situ for its improved production were for the first time calculated by its annual production potential estimation, and relevant future study was attempted [1]. Betalains are named as caryophyll in enroth/rubenroth/chromo-alkaloids that are polar, hydrophilic nitrogenous pigments which mainly exist in most plants of Caryophyllales order [2, 3]. It is derived from Beta vulgaris from which its extraction was done for the first time and well recognized as a chief natural source. Beetroot is the main part of plant which has enormous quantity of betalain than any other part. The presence of carboxylic acid is responsible for the acidic nature of this important bioactive molecule, which is why it is not included in alkaloids [3]. The earliest chemically identified betalains were thought to be anthocyanins till 1957 or nitrogenous anthocyanins more incisively [1] because the biological functions of anthocyanins were replaced by these nitrogenous compounds in plants [4]. This term incorrectly suggested structural resemblance between the two pigment classes: both betaxanthine and anthocyanin [5].


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lahore College for Women UniversityLahorePakistan

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