Advertisement

“Disabled” Versus “Nondisabled”: Another Redundant Binary?

  • Mary WickendenEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies on Children and Development book series (PSCD)

Abstract

Echoing other discussions on binaries, this chapter addresses the dichotomy “disabled versus nondisabled” and considers the dilemmas in using this categorisation in a world where “inclusion” is an avowed aspiration. Child mortality has dramatically reduced recently. However, some who survive will have impairments, leading to the label disabled and usually affecting their status as citizens. Meanwhile, attention globally is turning to maximising all children’s development. However, disabled children are frequently seen in categorical ways which do not lead to their real inclusion. They are often once labelled as different, excluded from mainstream society. Being categorised does not always lead to accessible services and activities, support, and acceptance. This chapter discusses the implications of being labelled “disabled” and proposes actions leading to a broader acceptance of diversity. Ideally, disabled children would like a “strategic essentialism” which only categorises them for positive resource-related reasons and not for negative and exclusionary ones.

References

  1. Ansell, N., Robson, E., Hajdu, F., & van Blerk, L. (2012). Learning from Young People About Their Lives: Using Participatory Methods to Research the Impacts of AIDS in Southern Africa. Children’s Geographies, 10(2), 169–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beazley, H., Bessel, S., Ennew, J., & Waterson, R. (2009). Editorial: The Right to Be Properly Researched – Research with Children in a Messy Real World. Children’s Geographies, 7(4), 365–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burman, E., Greenstein, A., & Kumar, M. (2015). Editorial: Frames and Debates for Disability, Childhood and the Global South: Introducing the Special Issue. Disability and the Global South, 2(2), 563–569.Google Scholar
  4. Corker, M., & Davis, J. M. (2000). Disabled Children – Invisible Under the Law. In J. Cooper & S. Vernon (Eds.), Disability and the Law. London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  5. Countdown. (2015). A Decade of Tracking Progress for Maternal, New-Born and Child Survival UNICEF and WHO. http://countdown2030.org/reports-and-articles/2015-final-report
  6. Curran, T., & Runswick-Cole, K. (Eds.). (2013). Disabled Children’s Childhood Studies: Critical Approaches in a Global Context. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. Den Besten, J., Cornielje, M. T., Cornielje, H., & Betsey, D. N. (2016). Supporting Parents in Caring for Children with Disability in Ghana. Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development, 27(3), 87–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Engle, L. P., Black, M. M., Behrman, J. R., Cabral de Mello, M., Gentler, P. J., Kapiriri, L., Martorell, R., Eming Young, M., & The International Child Development Steering Group. (2007). Child Development in Developing Countries 3. Strategies to Avoid the Loss of Developmental Potential in More than 200 Million Children in the Developing World. The Lancet, 369, 229–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Farmer, P. (2005). Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  10. Feldman, M. A., Battin, S. M., Shaw, O. A., & Luckasson, R. (2013). Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research. Disability & Society, 28(7), 997–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Filmer, D. (2008). Disability, Poverty, and Schooling in Developing Countries: Results from 14 Household Surveys. The World Bank Economic Review, 22, 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fuss, D. (1989). Essentially Speaking. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, Peace and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Resolution, 6, 167–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Green, S. E. (2007). We’re Tired Not Sad’: Benefits and Burdens of Mothering a Child with a Disability. Social Science and Medicine, 64(1), 150–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Groce, N., Kett, M., Lang, R., & Trani, J. F. (2011). Disability and Poverty: The Need for a More Nuanced Understanding of Implications for Development Policy and Practice. Third World Quarterly, 32(8), 1493–1513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hacking, I. (1999). The Social Construction of What? Harvard/Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hill, M. (2006). Children’s Voices on Ways of Having a Voice: Children’s and Young People’s Perspectives on Methods of Consultation. Childhood, 13(1), 69–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hill, K., You, D., Inoue, M., & Oestergaard, M. Z. (2012). Technical Advisory Group of the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation). Child Mortality Estimation: Accelerated Progress in Reducing Global Child Mortality, 1990–2010. PLOS Med, 9(8), e1001303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Horgan, D. (2016). Participation, Attempts to Go Deeper. Childhood, 24(2), 249–259.Google Scholar
  20. Hunleth, J. (2011). Beyond on or with: Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in ‘Child-Oriented’ Research Methodology. Childhood, 18(1), 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. James, A., & James, A. L. (2004). Constructing Childhood. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones, L., Bellis, M. A., Wood, S., Hughes, K., McCoy, E., Eckley, L., Bates, G., Mikton, C., Shakespeare, T., & Officer, A. (2012). Prevalence and Risk of Violence Against Children with Disabilities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. The Lancet, 380(9845), 899–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kuper, H., Monteath-van Dok, A., Wing, K., et al. (2014). The Impact of Disability on the Lives of Children; Cross-Sectional Data Including 8900 Children with Disabilities and 898,834 Children Without Disabilities Across 30 Countries. PLoS One, 9(9), e107300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mackenzie, C., & Leach Scully, J. (2007). Moral Imagination, Disability and Embodiment. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 24(4), 335–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McNally, A., & Mannan, H. (2013). Perceptions of Caring for Children with Disabilities: Experiences from Moshi, Tanzania. African Journal of Disability, 2(1), v2i1.21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nario-Redmond, M. R., Noel, J. G., & Fern, E. (2013). Redefining Disability, Re-imagining the Self: Disability Identification Predicts Self-Esteem and Strategic Responses to Stigma. Self and Identity, 12(5), 468–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Phillips, A. (2010). What’s Wrong with Essentialism? Distinktion: Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory, 11(1), 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Plan International. (2013). Outside the Circle: A Research Initiative by Plan International into the Rights of Children with Disabilities to Education and Protection in West Africa. Plan International plan-international.org/publications
  29. Punch, S. (2015). Possibilities for Learning Between Childhoods and Youth in the Minority and Majority Worlds: Youth Transitions as an Example of Cross-World Dialogue. In J. Wyn & H. Cahill (Eds.), Handbook of Children and Youth Studies. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  30. Reeve, D. (2006). Towards a Psychology of Disability: The Emotional Effects of Living in a Disabling Society. In D. Goodley & R. Lawthom (Eds.), Disability and Psychology: Critical Introductions and Reflections (pp. 94–107). London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sabatello, M. (2013). Children with Disabilities: A Critical Appraisal. International Journal of Children’s Rights, 21(3), 464–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Scheer, J., & Groce, N. (1988). Impairment as a Human Constant: Cross-Cultural and Historical Perspectives on Variation. Journal of Social Issues, 44(1), 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shakespeare, T. (2014). Disability Rights and Wrongs Revisited. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Shakespeare, T., & Watson, N. (2010). Beyond Models: Understanding the Complexity of Disabled People’s Lives. In S. Scambler & G. Scambler (Eds.), New Directions in the Sociology of Chronic and Disabling Conditions: Assaults on the Lifeworlds (pp. 55–77). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  35. Singal, N. (2009). Disability, Poverty and Education: Implications for Policies and Practices. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(10), 1047–1052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Singal, N., & Muthukrishna, N. (2014). Introduction: Education, Childhood and Disability in Countries of the South–Re-positioning the Debates. Childhood, 21(3), 293–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Singh, V., & Ghai, A. (2009). Notions of Self: Lived Realities of Children with Disabilities. Disability & Society, 24(2), 129–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Skelton, T. (2008). Research with Children and Young People: Exploring the Tensions Between Ethics, Competence and Participation. Children’s Geographies, 6(1), 21–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stalker, K., & Connors, C. (2004). Children’s Perceptions of Their Disabled Siblings: ‘She’s Different But It’s Normal for Us’. Children and Society, 18(13), 218–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Swain, J., & French, S. (2000). Towards an Affirmative Model of Disability. Disability and Society, 15, 569–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behaviour. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  42. Thomas, C. (2004). How Is Disability Understood? An Examination of Sociological Approaches. Disability & Society, 19(6), 569–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Thomas, C. (2007). Sociologies of Disability and Illness. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tisdall, E. K. M., & Punch, S. (2012). Not So ‘New’? Looking Critically at Childhood Studies. Children’s Geographies, 10(3), 249–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Trani, J. F., & Loeb, M. (2012). Poverty and Disability: A Vicious Circle? Evidence from Afghanistan and Zambia. Journal of International Development, 24(1), 19–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Twum-Danso, A. (2016). From the Singular to the Plural: Exploring Diversities in Contemporary Childhoods in Sub-Saharan Africa. Childhood, 23(3), 455–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. UN. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment
  48. UNICEF. (2011, December 3). Calls for Children with Disabilities to Be Included in All Development. http://www.unicef.org/media/media_60790.html
  49. UNICEF. (2013). State of the World’s Children: Children with Disabilities. New York: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  50. Washington Group on Disability Statistics. (2016). Child Functioning Questioning Sets. http://www.washingtongroup-disability.com/washington-group-question-sets/child-disability
  51. Watson, N. (2002). Well I Know This Is Going to Sound Very Strange to You But I Don’t See Myself as a Disabled Person: Identity and Disability. Disability and Society, 17(5), 509–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Watson, N. (2012). Theorising the Lives of Disabled Children: How Can Disability Theory Help? Children & Society, 26(3), 192–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. WHO. (2001). International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). http://www.who.int/classifications/icf/en
  54. WHO. (2010). Community Based Rehabilitation Guidelines. Geneva: WHO. http://www.who.int/disabilities/cbr/guidelines/en
  55. WHO. (2012). Early Childhood Development and Disability: Discussion Paper. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  56. WHO, & World Bank. (2011). World Report on Disability. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  57. Wickenden, M. (2011). Whose Voice Is That? Issues of Identity, Voice and Representation Arising in an Ethnographic Study of the Lives of Disabled Teenagers Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Disability Studies Quarterly, 31(4).Google Scholar
  58. Wickenden, M. (2017). Listening to Disabled Children’s Voices in the Global South. In N. Singal et al. (Eds.), New Conversations in Education and Disability: Reflections from Southern Countries. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  59. Wickenden, M., & Elphick, J. (2016). Don’t Forget Us, We Are Here Too! Listening to the Perspectives and Priorities of Disabled Children and Their Families Living in Contexts of Poverty. In S. Grech & K. Soldatic (Eds.), Disability in the Global South: A Critical Handbook (Chapter 24). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  60. Wickenden, M., & Kembhavi, G. (2014). Ask Us Too! Doing Participatory Research with Disabled Children in the Global South. Childhood, 21(3), 400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Witchger Hansen, M., Siame, M., & Van der Veen, J. (2014). A Qualitative Study: Barriers and Support for Participation for Children with Disabilities. African Journal of Disability, 3(1), 112.Google Scholar
  62. Zuurmond, M., Nyapera, V., Mwenda, V., Kisia, J., Rono, H., & Palmer, J. (2016). Childhood Disability in Turkana, Kenya: Understanding How Caregivers Carers Cope in a Complex Humanitarian Setting. African Journal of Disability, 5(1), 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Global HealthUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.The Institute for Development StudiesUniversity of SussexBrightonUK

Personalised recommendations