Advertisement

Comparing Children’s Care Work Across Majority and Minority Worlds

  • Ruth EvansEmail author
  • Saul Becker
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies on Children and Development book series (PSCD)

Abstract

Comparative qualitative methodologies that investigate children’s lives in sharply contrasting socio-economic, political and welfare contexts are relatively unusual. Yet within an increasingly interdependent globalised world, comparative research and dialogue across binaries seems ever more important. In this chapter, we critically reflect on global conceptualisations of young caregiving and discuss the methodological and ethical challenges that arose in our comparative study of children caring for a parent/relative living with HIV in Tanzania and the UK. We discuss the potential problems and benefits of using the term “young carer” and suggest that levels of support and recognition of children’s caring roles in particular countries do not follow a simple Majority-Minority world binary but rather reveal a more complex picture. We argue that developing global perspectives that work across geographical, linguistic and disciplinary boundaries can facilitate greater understanding of the commonalities and diversities of children’s caring lives globally.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all the participants of the Tanzania-UK study discussed here, Morten Skovdal for helpful discussions and reflections and the editors for their useful feedback on an earlier version of this chapter.

References

  1. Abebe, T., & Kjørholt, A. T. (2009). Social Actors and Victims of Exploitation. Working Children in the Cash Economy of Ethiopia’s South. Childhood, 16(2), 175–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreouli, E., Skovdal, M., & Campbell, C. (2013). ‘It Made Me Realise That I Am Lucky for What I Got’: British Young Carers Encountering the Realities of Their African Peers. Journal of Youth Studies, 16(8), 1038–1053. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2013.772574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ansell, N. (2009). Childhood and the Politics of Scale: Descaling Children’s Geographies? Progress in Human Geography, 33(2), 190–209. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132508090980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauman, L., Foster, G., Johnson Silver, E., Gamble, I., & Muchaneta, L. (2006). Children Caring for Their Ill Parents with HIV/AIDS. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 1(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker, S. (2000). Young Carers. In M. Davies (Ed.), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Work (p. 378). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  6. Becker, S. (2007). Global Perspectives on Children’s Unpaid Caregiving in the Family: Research and Policy on ‘Young Carers’ in the UK, Australia, the USA and Sub-Saharan Africa. Global Social Policy, 7(1), 23–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker, S., Aldridge, J., & Dearden, C. (1998). Young Carers and Their Families. Oxford: Blackwell Science.Google Scholar
  8. Boyden, J. (1997). Childhood and the Policy Makers: A Comparative Perspective on the Globalization of Childhood. In A. James & A. Prout (Eds.), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood (pp. 190–229). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bray, R. (2009). A Literature Review on Child Carers in Angola, Nigeria, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Unpublished Report Save the Children UK, London.Google Scholar
  10. Budlender, D. (2010). What Do Time Use Studies Tell Us About Unpaid Care Work? Evidence from Seven Countries. In D. Budlender (Ed.), Time Use Studies and Unpaid Care Work (pp. 1–46). London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Christensen, P., & James, A. (2000). Research with Children: Perspectives and Practices. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cluver, L., Operario, D., Lane, T., & Kganakga, M. (2012). I Can’t Go to School and Leave Her in So Much Pain’: Educational Shortfalls Among Adolescent ‘Young Carers’ in the South African AIDS Epidemic. Journal of Adolescent Research, 27(5), 581–605. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558411417868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cree, V., Tisdal, H. K. E., & Wallace, J. (2006). Listening to Children and Young People Affected by Parental HIV: Findings from a Scottish Study. AIDS Care, 18(1), 73–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dahlblom, K. (2008). Home Alone. Sibling Caretakers in Léon, Nicaragua. Medical Dissertation No. 1210, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medical Faculty, Umeå University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  15. Day, C., & Evans, R. (2015). Caring Responsibilities, Change and Transitions in Young People’s Family Lives in Zambia. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, XLVI(1), 137–152.Google Scholar
  16. Diaz, N., Siskowski, C., & Connors, L. (2007). Latino Young Caregivers in the United States: Who Are They and What Are the Academic Implications of This Role? Child & Youth Care Forum, 36, 131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doyal, L., Anderson, J., & Apenteng, P. (2005). ‘I Want to Survive, I Want to Win, I Want Tomorrow’: An Exploratory Study of African Men Living with HIV in London. London: Homerton University Hospital and Terrence Higgins Trust.Google Scholar
  18. Evans, R. (2010). Children’s Caring Roles and Responsibilities Within the Family in Africa. Geography Compass, 4(10), 1477–1496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Evans, R. (2011). Young Caregiving and HIV in the UK: Caring Relationships and Mobilities in African Migrant Families. Population, Space & Place, 17(4), 338–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans, R. (2012). Sibling Caringscapes: Time-Space Practices of Caring Within Youth-Headed Households in Tanzania and Uganda. Geoforum, 43, 824–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans, R. (2014a). Children as Caregivers. In A. Ben-Arieh, F. Casas, I. Frones, & J. E. Korbin (Eds.), Handbook of Child Well-Being. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Evans, R. (2014b). Parental Death as a Vital Conjuncture? Intergenerational Care and Responsibility Following Bereavement in Senegal. Social and Cultural Geography, 15(5), 547–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Evans, R. (2016). Achieving and Evidencing Research ‘Impact’? Tensions and Dilemmas from an Ethic of Care Perspective. Area, 48(2), 213–221. https://doi.org/10.1111/area.12256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Evans, R. (2017). Critical Reflections on Participatory Dissemination: Co-producing Research Messages with Young People. In R. Evans & L. Holt (Eds.), Methodological Approaches. Geographies of Children and Young People (pp. 67–96). Vol. 2. of T. Skelton (Ed.), Geographies of Children and Young People. Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Evans, R., & Becker, S. (2009). Children Caring for Parents with HIV and AIDS: Global Issues and Policy Responses. Bristol: The Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Evans, R., & Skovdal, M. (2015). Defining Children’s Rights to Work and Care in Sub-Saharan Africa: Tensions and Challenges in Policy and Practice. In K.P. Kallio & S. Mills (Eds), Politics, Citizenship and Rights. Vol. 7 of T. Skelton (Ed.), Geographies of Children and Young People. Singapore: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Evans, R., Ribbens McCarthy, J., Kébé, F., Bowlby, S., & Wouango, J. (2017). Interpreting ‘Grief’ in Senegal: Language, Emotions and Cross-Cultural Translation in a Francophone African Context. Mortality, 22(2), 118–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Frank, J., & McLarnon, J. (2008). Young Carers, Parents and Their Families: Key Principles of Practice. London: The Children’s Society.Google Scholar
  29. ILO. (2014). Convention Concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment C138 – Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138). Available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILOCODE:C138
  30. Leu, A., & Becker, S. (2017). A Cross-National and Comparative Classification of In-Country Awareness and Policy Responses to ‘Young Carers’. Journal of Youth Studies, 20(6), 750–762. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2016.1260698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meintjes, H., & Giese, S. (2006). Spinning the Epidemic: The Making of Mythologies of Orphanhood in the Context of AIDS. Childhood, 13(3), 407–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Morrow, R. (2005). A Profile of Known Young Carers and Identification and Snapshot of the Ones Who Are Hidden. Perth: Curtin University of Technology.Google Scholar
  33. National Alliance for Caregiving in Collaboration with the United Hospital Fund. (2005). Young Caregivers in the U.S.: Report of Findings September 2005. Bethesda: NAC. Available at www.caregiving.org and www.uhfnyc.org
  34. Ogden, J., Esim, S., & Grown, C. (2006). Expanding the Care Continuum for HIV/AIDS: Bringing Carers into Focus. Health Policy and Planning, 21(5), 333–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Payne, R. (2012). ‘Extraordinary Survivors’ or ‘Ordinary Lives’? Embracing ‘Everyday Agency’ in Social Interventions with Child-Headed Households in Zambia. Children’s Geographies, 10(4), 399–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Powell, M. (Ed.). (2007). Understanding the Mixed Economy of Welfare. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  37. Punch, S. (2001). Household Division of Labour: Generation, Gender, Age, Birth Order and Sibling Composition. Work, Employment and Society, 15(4), 803–823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Punch, S. (2016). Cross-World and Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue: A More Integrated, Global Approach to Childhood Studies. Global Studies of Childhood, 6(3), 352–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Purcal, C., Hamilton, M., Thomson, C., & Cass, B. (2012). From Assistance to Prevention: Categorizing Young Carer Support Services in Australia and International Implications. Social Policy and Administration, 46(7), 788–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ribbens McCarthy, J., Guo, Y., Phoenix, A., Xu Xiaoli, & Knight, A. (2017). The Institutionalisation of ‘TongNian’ and ‘Childhood’ in China and Britain: Exploring Cautious Comparisons. Childhood and Society, 31(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/chso.12166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ridge, D., Williams, A., Anderson, J., & Elford, J. (2008). Like a Prayer: The Role of Spirituality and Religion for People Living with HIV in the UK. Sociology of Health and Illness, 30(3), 413–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Robson, E. (2004). Hidden Child Workers: Young Carers in Zimbabwe. Antipode, 36(2), 227–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Robson, E., & Ansell, N. (2000). Young Carers in Southern Africa: Exploring Stories from Zimbabwean Secondary School Students. In S. Holloway & G. Valentine (Eds.), Children’s Geographies (pp. 74–93). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Robson, E., Ansell, N., Huber, U. S., Gould, W. T. S., & van Blerk, L. (2006). Young Caregivers in the Context of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population, Space and Place, 12, 93–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Skovdal, M. (2011). Examining the Trajectories of Children Providing Care for Adults in Rural Kenya: Implications for Service Delivery. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1262–1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Skovdal, M., & Andreouli, E. (2011). Using Identity and Recognition as a Framework to Understand and Promote the Resilience of Caregiving Children in Western Kenya. Journal of Social Policy, 40(3), 613–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Skovdal, M., & Evans, R. (2017). The Emergence of an Ethic of Care in Rural Kenyan Schools? Perspectives of Teachers and Orphaned and Vulnerable Pupils. Children’s Geographies, 15(2), 160–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Skovdal, M., Campbell, C., & Onyango, V. (2013). Supporting ‘Young Carers’ in Kenya: From Policy Paralysis to Action. Child Care in Practice, 19(4), 318–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Twum-Danso Imoh, A. (2016). From the Singular to the Plural: Exploring Diversities in Contemporary Childhoods in Sub-Saharan Africa. Childhood, 23(3), 455–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. UK Collaborative Group for HIV and STI Surveillance. (2006). A Complex Picture. HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United Kingdom: 2006. London: Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Environmental ScienceUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  2. 2.University of SussexBrightonUK

Personalised recommendations