Advertisement

Children Should Not Be Protected from Using Interactive Screens

  • Christopher J. FergusonEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Whether young children should have access to digital screens remains a matter of great contention among scholars. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics has historically recommended against allowing young children access to digital screens, research evidence to support this position has not always been clear. This chapter reviews research evidence that suggests that prohibition of screen access for young children is unwarranted and may be counterproductive. This chapter also considers related issues for older children such as social media use and exposure to suicide-themed fictional media.

Keywords

Screen time Child development Children Academic achievement Social media Suicide 

References

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2011). Policy statement --- media use by children younger than 2 years. Pediatrics, 128, 1040–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016). Media and young minds. Pediatrics, Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/10/19/peds.2016-2591
  3. Barr, R. (2010). Transfer of learning between 2D and 3D sources during infancy: Informing theory and practice. Developmental Review, 30(2), 128–154.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2010.03.001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berryman, C., Ferguson, C. J., & Negy, C. (in press). Social media use and mental health among young adults. Psychiatric Quarterly.Google Scholar
  5. Childstats.gov. (2017). Mathematics and reading achievement. Retrieved from: https://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/edu2.asp
  6. Davila, J., Hershenberg, R., Feinstein, B., Gorman, K., Bhatia, V., & Starr, L. (2012). Frequency and quality of social networking among young adults: Associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and corumination. Psychology of Popular Media culture, 1(2), 72–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ferguson, C. J. (2017). Everything in moderation: Moderate use of screens unassociated with child behavior problems. Psychiatric Quarterly, 88(4), 797–805.Google Scholar
  8. Ferguson, C. J. (April, 2018). 13 reasons why not: A methodological and meta-analytic review of suicide Contagion by Fictional Media. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Technology, Mind & Society Conference, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  9. Ferguson, C. J. (in press). Everything in moderation: Moderate use of screens unassociated with child behavior problems. Psychiatric Quarterly.Google Scholar
  10. Ferguson, C. J., & Donnellan, M. B. (2014). Is the association between children’s baby video viewing and poor language development robust? A reanalysis of Zimmerman, Christakis, and Meltzoff (2007). Developmental Psychology, 50(1), 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ferguson, C. J., Munoz, M. E., Garza, A., & Galindo, M. (2014). Concurrent and prospective analyses of peer, television and social media influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in adolescent girls. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Foster, E. M., & Watkins, S. (2010). The value of reanalysis: TV viewing and attention problems. Child Development, 81, 368–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gonzalez, R. (2018). It’s time for a serious talk about the science of Tech “Addiction.” Wired. Retrieved from: https://www.wired.com/story/its-time-for-a-serious-talk-about-the-science-of-tech-addiction/
  14. Griffiths, M. (1997). Friendship and social development in children and adolescents: The impact of electronic technology. Educational And Child Psychology, 14(3), 25–37.Google Scholar
  15. Grohol, J. (2014). Emotional Contagion on Facebook? more like bad research methods. PsycCentral. Retrieved from: https://psychcentral.com/blog/emotional-contagion-on-facebook-more-like-bad-research-methods/
  16. Kramer, A., Guillory, J., & Hancock, J. (2014). Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 8788–8790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kwok, K., Ghrear, S., Li, V., Haddock, T., Coleman, P., & Birch, S. J. (2016). Children can learn new facts equally well from interactive media versus face to face instruction. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1063.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lewin, T. (2010). ‘Baby Einstein’ founder goes to court. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/13/education/13einstein.html
  19. Lillard, A. S., & Peterson, J. (2011). The immediate impact of different types of television on young children’s executive function. Pediatrics, 128(4), 644–649.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-1919CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Linebarger, D. L. (2015). Screen media, early cognitive development, and language: Babies’ learning from screens. In D. Lemish & D. Lemish (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of children, adolescents and media (pp. 171–178). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  21. Linebarger, D. L., & Vaala, S. E. (2010). Screen media and language development in infants and toddlers: An ecological perspective. Developmental Review, 30(2), 176–202.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2010.03.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Luckin, R., Connolly, D., Plowman, L., & Airey, S. (2003). Children's interactions with interactive toy technology. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19(2), 165–176.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0266-4909.2003.00017.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. National Association of School Psychologists. (2017). “13 reasons why” Netflix series: Considerations for educators. Retrieved from: https://www.nasponline.org/resources-and-publications/resources/school-safety-and-crisis/preventing-youth-suicide/13-reasons-why-netflix-series-considerations-for-educators
  24. Poniewozik, J. (2011). I let my babies watch TV. And I regret nothing! Time. Retrieved from: http://entertainment.time.com/2011/10/19/i-let-my-babies-watch-tv-and-i-regret-nothing/
  25. Przybylski, A. K., & Weinstein, N. (in press). Digital screen time limits and young children's psychological Well-being: Evidence from a population-based study. Child Development.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13007
  26. Przybylski, A. K. (2014). Electronic gaming and psychosocial adjustment. Pediatrics, 134(3), e716–e722. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-4021
  27. Read, J. L., & Shortell, S. M. (2011). Interactive games to promote behavior change in prevention and treatment. JAMA: Journal Of The American Medical Association, 305(16), 1704–1705.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.408CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Reinecke, L., & Trepte, S. (2014). Authenticity and Well-being on social network sites: A two-wave longitudinal study on the effects of online authenticity and the positivity bias in SNS communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schmidt, M. E., Rich, M., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Oken, E., & Taveras, E. M. (2009). Television viewing in infancy and child cognition at 3 years of age in a US cohort. Pediatrics, 123(3), e370–e375.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-3221CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Twenge, J. (2017). Have smartphones destroyed a generation? The Atlantic. Retrieved from: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/09/has-the-smartphone-destroyed-a-generation/534198/
  31. Twenge, J., Joiner, T., & Rogers, M. (in press). Increases in depressive symptoms, suicide-related outcomes, and suicide rates among U.S. Adolescents after 2010 and links to increased New Media Screen Time. Clinical Psychological Science, 6, 3.Google Scholar
  32. Zero to Three. (2014). Screen sense: Setting the record straight. Retrieved from: https://www.zerotothree.org/resources/series/screen-sense-setting-the-record-straight
  33. Zimmerman, F. J., Christakis, D. A., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2007). Associations between media viewing and language development in children under age two years. Journal of Pediatrics, 151(4), 364–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyStetson UniversityDeLandUSA

Personalised recommendations