Advertisement

The Sources. Formation of the Concept of Directed Evolution in the Nineteenth Century

  • Igor Popov
Chapter

Abstract

The pre-history of the concepts of directed evolution is represented by treatises of the authors who worked in the first half of the nineteenth century (Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Georges Cuvier, Giovanni Batista Brocchi and others). They contained ideas related to spontaneous evolution, constraints on variation and the similarity of lifecycles of species and those of individuals. In the second half of the nineteenth century the concept of directed evolution was developed by Albert von Kölliker, Carl Nägeli, Edward Cope, Alpheus Hyatt, Wilhelm Haacke and Theodor Eimer, who worked more or less independently of each other. Each of these authors can be credited with being, in some respect, the pioneer of orthogenesis. The first works dealing with directed evolution were disconnected, and we cannot find in them the first wording of this concept, however hard we might try. This elusive concept can be deduced from the context of the writings of several authors, who claimed that organisms changed spontaneously in definite directions and denied the leading role of natural selection. As for the rest, their ideas had little in common.

Keywords

Lamarckism Purposeful evolution Non-adaptive characters Constraints on variation Nineteenth century 

References

  1. Allen J (1906) The influence of physical conditions in the genesis of species. Annual report of Smithsonian Institution (1905), Washington, p 375–403Google Scholar
  2. Belgovsky ML, Khvostova VV (1948) Explanation of some terms (Poyasnenie nekotorykh terminov). In: Russian edition: Simpson GG (1948) Tempy i formy evolyutsii. Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo inostrannoy literatury, Moscow, p 334–340Google Scholar
  3. Bowler P (1979) Theodor Eimer and orthogenesis. J Hist Med 34:40–78Google Scholar
  4. Bowler PJ (1983) The eclipse of Darwinism. Johns Hopkins Univ Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  5. Bowler PJ (1989) Evolution. The history of an idea. Univ of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  6. Brocchi G (1843) Fossil subapennine conchiology, with geological observations on Apennines and adjacent areas (Conchiologia fossile subapennina, con observazioni geologiche sugli Appennini e sul suolo adiacente): In 2 vol. V 1. Giovanni silvestri, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  7. Cope ED (1868) On the origin of genera. Proceedings of academy of natural sciences of Philadelphia 4:242–305Google Scholar
  8. Cope ED (1890) Eimer on evolution. Am Nat 5(24):751–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cope ED (1896) Primary factors of organic evolution. Open Court Publishing, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  10. Cuvier G (1850) A Discourse on the revolutions of the globe, with notes and an appendix, according to recent studies (Discours sur les révolutions du globe, avec les notes et un appendice, d’après les travaux récentes). Libraire de Firmin Didot Frères, ParisGoogle Scholar
  11. Dalcq A (1954) Ontomutations at the origin of mammals (Les ontomutations a l’origine des mammiferes). Bull Soc Zool Fr 79:240–255Google Scholar
  12. Darwin Ch (1859 [1987]) The Origin of Species. (Reprint of 1st edition 1859) Suffolk: Penguin booksGoogle Scholar
  13. Darwin ChR (1872) The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. John Murray, London. 6th edition, with additions and correctionsGoogle Scholar
  14. Darwin ChR (1875) The variation of animals and plants under domestication. John Murray, London 2nd edn Vol 1Google Scholar
  15. Darwin C (1883) The variation of animals and plants under domestication. Second Edition, Revised. D. Appleton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Darwin ChR (1887) The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter, John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Definite vs. Fortuitous Variation in Animals and Plants (1892) Meehan Th, McMurrich JP, Allen JA, Cope ED (eds) Meeting of the American Society of Naturalists, Philadelphia, 1891. Am Nat 26: 83–92Google Scholar
  18. Devillers Ch, Chaline J (1993) Evolution. An evolving theory. Springer Verlag, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  19. Döderlein L (1888) Phylogenetic observations (Phylogenetische Betrachtungen). Biologisches Centralblatt 7:394–402Google Scholar
  20. Duval-Jouve M (1865) Parallel variations of congeneric types (Variations parallèles des types congénères). Bulletin de la société botanique de France 12. Comptes rendus de séances 3:196–211Google Scholar
  21. Eimer Th (1888) Die Entstehung der Arten auf Grund von Vererben erworbener Eigenschaften nach den Gesetzen organischen Wachsens. I Teil. Fischer, Jena. English edition: Eimer (1890) Organic Evolution as the result of the inheritance of acquired characters according to the laws of organic growth (trans J Th Cunningham), Macmillan & Co., London
  22. Eimer Th (1897) Orthogenesis of butterflies. An argument determines directed development and the impotence of natural selection for the origin of species. At the same time a rejoindre to August Weismann (Orthogenesis der Schmetterlinge. Ein Beweis bestimmt gerichteter Entwickelung und Ohnmacht der naturlichen Zuchtwahl bei der Artbildung. Zugleich eine Erwiderung an August Weismann). W. Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  23. Fickert C (1899) Gustav Heinrich Theodor Eimer. Tuebinger zoologisher Arbeiten. III Band 1898-1899. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, p 5–11Google Scholar
  24. Gaudry A (1896) An essay in philosophical palaeontology (Essai de paleontology philosophique). Masson et C-ie, ParisGoogle Scholar
  25. Gaysinovich AE (1988) Origin and development of genetics (Zarozhdenie i razvitie genetiki). Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  26. Gutmann WF (1996) Are there alternative ways for the development of the organisation of living organisms I (Gibt es Alternativwege fuer die Entwicklung der organisation von Lebewesen I). Nat Mus 126(8):250–262Google Scholar
  27. Guyénot E (1930) Variation and evolution (La variation et l'évolution). G. Doin et C-ie, ParisGoogle Scholar
  28. Haacke W (1893a) Form and inheritance. Developmental mechanichs of organisms (Gestaltung und Vererbung. Eine Entwickelungsmechanik der Organismen). T. O. Weigel Nachfolger, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  29. Haacke W (1893b) The creation of the animal world (Die Schöpfung der Tierwelt). Bibliographisches Institut, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  30. Hyatt A (1866) On the parallelism between the different stages of the life in the individual and those in the entire group of the molluscous order Tetrabranchiata. Memoirs read before the Boston Society of Natural History, being a new series of the Boston Journal of Natural History 1: 198–210Google Scholar
  31. Hyatt A (1897) Cycle in the life of individual (ontogeny) and the evolution of its own group (phylogeny). Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 32(10): 207–224Google Scholar
  32. Junker Th (2004) The second Darwinian revolution. The history of synthetic Darwinism in Germany from 1925 to 1950 (Die zweite Darwinistische Revolution. Geschichte des Synthetischen Darwinismus in Deutschland 1925 bis 1950). Basilisken Presse, MarburgGoogle Scholar
  33. Kanaev II (2000) Selected works on the history of science (Izbrannye trudy po istorii nauki). Aleteiya, St PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  34. Kholodkovsky NA (1888) cited in Kholodkovsky NA (1923) Biological essays (Biologicheskie ocherki). In: Kholodkovsky NA, Pavlovsky EN (eds) A collection of selected articles on the theory of evolution and various problems of biology (Sbornik izbrannykh statey po teorii evolyutsii i razlichnym voprosam biologii). Posthumous edition. Gosudarstvenne izdatel’stvo, Moscow/PetrogradGoogle Scholar
  35. Kölliker RA (1864) Über die Darwin’sche Schöpfungstheorie (Vortrag 1864 in Würzburg). Z Wiss Zool 14:174–186Google Scholar
  36. Kölliker RA (1872) Morphology and developmental history of Pennatulid genera alongside general considerations concerning evolutionary theory (Morphologie und Entwickelungsgeschichte des Pennatulidenstammes nebst allgemeinen Betrachtungen zur Descendenzlehre). Christian Winter, Frankfurt a. MGoogle Scholar
  37. Korzhinsky SI (1899) Heterogenesis and evolution. Towards the theory of the origin of species. I. (Geterogenezis i evolyutsiya. K teorii proiskhozhdeniya vidov. I.). Zapiski Imperatorskoy Akademii nauk, Seriya 8, 9(2): 1–94Google Scholar
  38. Kozo-Polyansky BM (1921) Symbiogenesis in the evolution of plant world (Simbiogenezis v evolyutsii rastitel’nogo mira). Vestnik opytnogo dela 4:1–24Google Scholar
  39. Kryzhanovsky SG (1939) The principle of recapitulation and the conditions of historical understanding of development (an essay of the theory of historical heterogenesis) (Printsip rekapitulyatsii i usloviya istoricheskogo ponimaniya razvitiya [ocherk teorii istoricheskogo geterogenezisa]). In: In memory of academician A. N. Severtsov (Pamyati akademika A. N. Severtsova), v 1. AN SSSR, Moscow, Leningrad, p 281–383Google Scholar
  40. Lamarck JB (1809) cited in Lamarck (1914) English translation by hugh samuel roger elliottGoogle Scholar
  41. Lamarck JB (1822) Natural history of invertebrate animals (Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres). T. 6. Paris,Verdière, translation into English: http:.www.nndb.com/people/275/000057104/
  42. Nägeli C (1856) Individuality in nature with regard to plant world (Die Individualität in der Natur mit Berücksichtigung des Pflanzenreichs). Akademishe Vortrage, II. Verlag von Meyer & Zeller, Zurich, p 171-212Google Scholar
  43. Nägeli C (1865) Origin and concept of species in natural history (Entstehung und Begriff der Naturhistorischen Art), Im Verlage der koenigl Akademia, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  44. Nägeli C (1884) Mechanistic-physiological theory of evolutionary theory (Mechanischphysiologische Theorie der Abstammungslehre). Druck und Verlag von R. Oldenbourg, Munich and LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  45. Pfeifer EJ (1965) The genesis of American Neolamarсkism. Isis 56(184):156–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rabaud E (1953) Fortuity and the life of species (Le hasard et la vie des espèces). Flammarion, ParisGoogle Scholar
  47. Raykov BE (1952) Russian evolutionry biologists before Darwin (Russkie biologi-evolyutsionisty do Darvina). AN SSSR, Moscow, LeningradGoogle Scholar
  48. Raykov BE (1961) Karl Baer. His life and works (Karl Ber. Ego zhizn’ i trudy). AN SSSR IIET, Moscow, LeningradGoogle Scholar
  49. Rensch B (1954) New problems of the evolutionary theory: transspecies evolution (Neuere Probleme der Abstammungslehre: transspeciphische Evolution). Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  50. Richardson RC, Kane TC (1989) Orthogenesis and evolution in the nineteenth century. In: Nitecki M (ed) Evolutionary progress. Univ of Chicago press, Chicago and London, pp 149–169Google Scholar
  51. Riedl R (1975) The order of living things (Die Ordnung des Lebendigen). Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg and BerlinGoogle Scholar
  52. Schmalhausen II (1969) The problems of Darwinism (Problemy darvinisma). Nauka, LeningradGoogle Scholar
  53. Schmidt I (2000) Concise biographies (Kurzbiographien). In: Jahn I (ed) History of biology (Geschichte der Biologie). 3 neubearbeitete Auflage. Spektrum Academischer Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, pp 755–1000Google Scholar
  54. Steinmann G (1908) Geological foundations of the evolutionary theory (Die geologischen Grundlagen der Abstammungslehre). Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  55. Takhtadzhyan AL (1991) Darwin and the modern theory of evolution (Darvin i sovremennaya teoriya evolyutsii). In: Russian edition: Darwin Ch (1991) The origin of species (Proiskhozhdenie vidov). Nauka, St Petersburg, p 489–523Google Scholar
  56. von Baer KE (1876) On the Darwinian teaching (Über Darwinsche Lehre). In: Studien aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften. Verlag der Caiferlichen Hofbuchhandlung H. Schmissdorf, St Petersburg, p 235–479Google Scholar
  57. Winther RG (2000) Darwin on variation and heredity. J Hist Biol 33:425–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor Popov
    • 1
  1. 1.Saint Petersburg State University, N. N. Petrov Research Institute of OncologySaint PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations