• Igor Popov


Concepts of directed evolution have been emerging over the entire period of the existence of evolutionary biology, and keep doing so nowadays. At the same time, the main arguments are being repeated again and again. The following evidence has often been interpreted in favour of directed evolution: constraints on variation , purely age-related changes in the evolution of groups of organisms, preadaptations, parallelisms and convergences, maladaptive characters. The mechanisms of these phenomena are equally difficult to explain regardless of whether Darwinism or its alternatives are chosen as the theoretical framework. The supporters of the idea of directed evolution paid special attention to these phenomena and collected abundant material on them, identifying in this way promising research directions in evolutionary biology. Seen in this regard, orthogenesis is a productive, though unrealised trend rather than a dead end of the evolutionary thought.


Concepts of directed evolution Arguments History 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor Popov
    • 1
  1. 1.Saint Petersburg State University, N. N. Petrov Research Institute of OncologySaint PetersburgRussia

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