Advertisement

Necrocracy or Democracy? Assessing Objections to Constitutional Unamendability

  • Yaniv RoznaiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice book series (IUSGENT, volume 68)

Abstract

Unamendability is a growing trend in global constitutionalism. Yet, unamendability, as a constitutional mechanism, raises various challenges and objections. Mainly, by perpetuating certain constitutional rules, values and institutions, unamendability exacerbates the ‘dead hand’ of the past, and by restricting all constitutional possibilities available to the people to revise their constitution, unamendability is seen as undemocratic and dangerous as it encourages extra-constitutional and revolutionary means in over to modify unamendable principles. Furthermore, the judicial enforcement of unamendability grants courts vast powers over other governmental branches, turning the judiciary into the final arbitrator of society’s values. This chapter identifies and analyses the main theoretical, practical and textual challenges to unamendability. It demonstrates that unamendability is a complex mechanism which ought to be applied with great care. Yet, it also argues that if the theory of unamendability is correctly construed as a mechanism which reserves a constitutional space for the decision-making of ‘the people’ in their capacity as holders of the primary constituent power (in contrast with the limited amendment power), this mitigates many of the challenges raised by unamendability.

References

  1. Abraham M (2000) In: Andenas M (ed) Judicial role in constitutional amendments in India: the basic structure doctrine, pp 195, 204Google Scholar
  2. Ackerman B (1993) We the people: foundations. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 20–21Google Scholar
  3. Akzin B (1956) On the stability and reality of constitutions. Scripta Hierosolymitana 3:313, 332Google Scholar
  4. Akzin B (1967) The place of the constitution in the modern state. Isr Law Rev 2(1):1, 12Google Scholar
  5. Albert R (2008) Counterconstitutionalism. Dalhousie Law J 31:1, 37–44Google Scholar
  6. Albert R (2010) Constitutional handcuffs. Ariz State Law Rev 42:663, 698Google Scholar
  7. Albert R (2013a) The expressive function of constitutional amendment rules. McGill Law J 59(2):225, 254Google Scholar
  8. Albert R (2013b) The unamendable Corwin amendment (27.02.2013). Available via ICONnect. www.iconnectblog.com/2013/02/the-unamendable-corwin-amendment
  9. Albert R (2014a) Constructive unamendability in Canada and the United States. Supreme Court Law Rev 67:181Google Scholar
  10. Albert R (2014b) Constitutional disuse or desuetude. Boston Univ Law Rev 94:1029, 1043Google Scholar
  11. Albert R (2015) Amending constitutional amendment rules. Int J Const Law 13(3):655Google Scholar
  12. Albert R (2016) The unamendable core of the United States constitution. In: Koltay A (ed) Comparative perspectives on the fundamental freedom of expression. Wolters Kluwer, Netherlands, p 13Google Scholar
  13. Amar AR (1988) Philadelphia revisited: amending the constitution outside article V. Univ Chicago Law Rev 55:1043, 1054–1058Google Scholar
  14. Arendt H (2006) [1963] On revolution, rev. edn. Penguin Classics, London, p 142Google Scholar
  15. Baker TE (2000) Towards a more perfect union: some thoughts on amending the constitution. Widener J Public Law 10:1, 3Google Scholar
  16. Balkin JM (2003) Respect-worthy: Frank Michelman and the legitimate constitution. Tulsa Law Rev 39:485, 486Google Scholar
  17. Barak A (2009) The judge in a democracy. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 23–26Google Scholar
  18. Baranger D (2011) The language of eternity: constitutional review of the amending power in France (Or the absence thereof). Isr Law Rev 44(3):389, 396Google Scholar
  19. Barber SA (1984) On what the constitution means. Johns Hopkins University Press, USA, p 43Google Scholar
  20. Bardutzky S (2010) The Strasbourg court on the Dayton constitution: judgment in the case of Sejdić and Finci v. Bosnia and Herzegovina, 22 December 2009 (October 19, 2010). Eur Const Law Rev 6(2):309Google Scholar
  21. Beaud O (1994) La puissance de l’état. Presses Universitaires de France, France, p 345Google Scholar
  22. Bernal C (2013) Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in the case study of Colombia: an analysis of the justification and meaning of the constitutional replacement doctrine. Int J Const Law 11:339, 349Google Scholar
  23. Bickel AM (1962) The least dangerous branch: the Supreme Court at the bar of politics. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, pp 16–23Google Scholar
  24. Bishin WR (1977–1978) Judicial review in democratic theory. South Calif Law Rev 50:1099Google Scholar
  25. Black CL Jr (1963) The proposed amendment of article V: a threatened disaster. Yale Law J 72:957, 959Google Scholar
  26. Borucka-Arctowa M (1991) Innovation and tradition against the background of revolutionary changes of law—a conceptual and functional analysis. In: Bankowski Z (ed) Revolutions in law and legal thought. Aberdeen University Press, Aberdeen, pp 79, 80Google Scholar
  27. Brandon M (1995) The “Original” thirteenth amendment and the limits to formal constitutional change. In: Levinson S (ed) Responding to imperfection: the theory and practice of constitutional amendment. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  28. Burdeau G (1930) Essai d’une Théorie de la Révision des Lois Constitutionnelles en Droit Français. Thèse, Faculté de droit de Paris, pp 78–83Google Scholar
  29. Burdeau G (1983) Traite de Science Politique, 3rd édn. LGDJ, pp 231–232Google Scholar
  30. Cahill M (2016) Ever closer remoteness of the peoples of Europe? Limits on the power of amendment and national constituent power. Camb Law J 75(2):245, 249–258Google Scholar
  31. Carrozza P (2007) In: Loughlin M, Walker N (eds) Constitutionalism’s post-modern opening. pp 168, 174–175Google Scholar
  32. Chandrachud C (this volume) Constitutional falsehoods: the fourth judges case and the basic structure doctrine in IndiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Child SR (1926) Revolutionary amendments to the constitution. Const Rev 10:27, 28Google Scholar
  34. Christopher Bryant A (2003) Stopping time: the pro-slavery and “irrevocable” thirteenth amendment. Harvard J Law Pub Policy 26:501Google Scholar
  35. Comella VF (2009) Constitutional courts & democratic values—a European perspective. Yale University Press, USA, pp 104–107Google Scholar
  36. Conrad D (1970) Limitation of amendment procedures and the constituent power. Indian Yearb Int Aff 15–16:380, 394Google Scholar
  37. Conrad D (2003) Basic structure of the constitution and constitutional principles. In: Sorabjee SJ (ed) Law and justice: an anthology. Universal Law Publishing, Uttar Pradesh, pp 186, 192Google Scholar
  38. Da Silva VA (2004) A fossilised constitution? Ratio Juris 17(4):454, 456–458Google Scholar
  39. Davis J (1881) The rise and fall of the confederate government. D. Appleton, USA, p 197Google Scholar
  40. Del Duca LF, Del Duca P (2006) An Italian federalism? the state, its institutions and national culture as rule of law guarantor. Am J Comp Law 54:799, 800–801Google Scholar
  41. Dellinger W (1983–1984) The legitimacy of constitutional change: rethinking the amendment process. Harvard Law Rev 97:386, 414–415Google Scholar
  42. Derosier JP (2017) In: Albert R, Contiades X, Fotiadou A (eds) The French people’s role in amending the constitution. p 315Google Scholar
  43. Dhamija A (2007) Need to amend a constitution and doctrine of basic features. Wadhwa, Nagpur, p 223Google Scholar
  44. Dixon R (2011) Constitutional amendment rules: a comparative perspective. In: Ginsburg T, Dixon R (eds) Comparative constitutional law. Edward Elgar Publishing, UK, pp 96, 98Google Scholar
  45. Dodd WF (1921) Amending the federal constitution. Yale Law J 30(4):321, 330–332Google Scholar
  46. Dow DR (1990–1991) When the words mean what we believe they say: the case of article V. Iowa Law Rev 76:1Google Scholar
  47. Dow DR (1995) In: Levinson S (ed) The plain meaning of article V. p 127Google Scholar
  48. Doyle O (2017) In: Albert R, Contiades X, Fotiadou A (eds) Constraints on constitutional amendment powers. p 73Google Scholar
  49. Dworkin R (1990) A bill of rights for Britain. Chatto & Windus, UK, pp 14, 35Google Scholar
  50. Dworkin R (1995) Constitutionalism and democracy. Eur J Philos 3(1):2Google Scholar
  51. Eisgruber CL (1997) The living hand of the past: history and constitutional justice. Fordham Law Rev 65:1611, 1616Google Scholar
  52. Elkins Z, Ginsburg T, Melton J (2009) The endurance of national constitutions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 129Google Scholar
  53. Elster J (2000) Ulysses unbound—studies in rationality, precommitment, and constraints. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 102Google Scholar
  54. Ely JH (1980) Democracy and distrust: a theory of judicial review. Harvard University Press, USA, p 11Google Scholar
  55. Escarras JC (1993) Presentation Du Rapport Italien De Massimo Luciani’ and Massimo Luciani, ‘La Revision Constituzionale in Italia’ in La Revision De La Constitution. Economica, pp 105, 112–116, 117, 130–138Google Scholar
  56. Feldman D (2011) ‘“Which in your case you have not got”: constitutionalism at home and abroad’. Curr Legal Probl 64(1):117, 142–144Google Scholar
  57. Feldman D (2012) The nature and effect of constitutional rights in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina. In: Harvey C, Schwartz A (eds) Rights in divided societies. Hart Publishing, UK, pp 151, 164Google Scholar
  58. Fleming JE (1994–1995) We the exceptional American people. Const Comment 11:355, 366Google Scholar
  59. Fombad CM (2007) Limits on the power to amend constitutions: recent trends in Africa and their potential impact on constitutionalism. Univ Botswana Law J 6:27, 57–58Google Scholar
  60. Fox GH, Nolte G (1995) Intolerant democracies. Harvard Int Law J 36:1, 19Google Scholar
  61. Freeman S (1990–1991) Constitutional democracy and the legitimacy of judicial review. Law Philos 9(4):327, 353–354Google Scholar
  62. Friedman A (2011) Dead hand constitutionalism: the danger of eternity clauses in new democracies. Mexican Law Rev 4:77, 93–96Google Scholar
  63. Friedrich CJ (1968) Constitutional government and democracy—theory and practice in Europe and America, 4th edn. Blaisdell Publishing Company, New York, pp 138, 143–146Google Scholar
  64. Fusaro C (2011) ‘Italy’. In: Oliver D, Fusaro C (eds) How constitutions change—a comparative study. Hart Publishing, UK, pp 211, 215Google Scholar
  65. Galizzi P (2000) In: Andenas M (ed) Constitutional revisions and reforms: the Italian experience. pp 235, 241Google Scholar
  66. Gárdos-Orosz F (this volume) The role of non-amendable clauses in judicial review of constitutional amendments: theoretical considerations inspired by Hungarian Constitutional Court case lawGoogle Scholar
  67. Garlicki L, Garlicka ZA (2012) Review of constitutionality of unconstitutional amendments (an imperfect response to imperfections?) Anayasa Hukuku Dergisi: J Const Law 1:185Google Scholar
  68. Geertjes GJ, Uzman J (this volume) Conventions of unamendability; unamendable constitutional law in politically enforced constitutionsGoogle Scholar
  69. Goerlich H (2008) Concept of special protection for certain elements and principles of the constitution against amendments and article 79(3), Basic law of Germany. NUJS Law Rev 1:397, 404Google Scholar
  70. Gören Z (2009) Anayasa Koyan Erk Ve Anayasa - Değişikliklerinin Sinirlari’. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 16:1, 12–13 [The constitution-making power and the limitations on constitutional amendments]. http://siyasaliletisim.org/pdf/anayasadegisikligi.pdf
  71. Gözler K (2008) Judicial review of constitutional amendments—a comparative study. Ekin, Bursa, pp 69–71Google Scholar
  72. Griffin SM (2007) Constituent power and constitutional change in American constitutionalism. In: Loughlin M, Walker N (eds) The paradox of constitutionalism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 49Google Scholar
  73. Groppi T (2012) Constitutional revision in Italy—a marginal instrument for constitutional change. In: Contiades X (ed) Engineering constitutional change: a comparative perspective on Europe, Canada and the USA. Routledge, London, pp 203, 210Google Scholar
  74. Guberman S (1967) Israel’s supra-constitution. Isr Law Rev 2:455, 457Google Scholar
  75. Hamilton A (1817) In: Hamilton A, Jay J, Madison J (eds) The federalist no. LXXVIII. pp 418, 421Google Scholar
  76. Hamilton A, Jay J, Madison J (1817) [1788] Federalist, on the new constitution. Benjamin Warner, Philadelphia, pp 233, 274Google Scholar
  77. Han WT (2010) Chain novels and amendments outside article V: a literary solution to a constitutional conundrum. Hamline Law Rev 33:71, 82Google Scholar
  78. Harris WF II (1993) The interpretable constitution. Johns Hopkins University Press, USA, pp 167, 193Google Scholar
  79. Hauriou M (1923) Precis de Droit Constitutionnel, 1st edn. Sirey, Paris, p 297 (my translation)Google Scholar
  80. Hickory G [Webster N] (1787–1788) Government. I Am Mag 138–139, 140–141Google Scholar
  81. Holding AM (1923) Perils to be apprehended from amending the constitution. Am Law Rev 57:481, 487Google Scholar
  82. Holmes S (1993) Precommitment and the paradox of democracy. In: Elster J, Slagstad R (eds) Constitutionalism and democracy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 195, 239Google Scholar
  83. Hoque R (this volume) Eternal provisions in the constitution of Bangladesh: a constitution once and for all?Google Scholar
  84. Hutchinson AC, Colón-Ríos J (2011) Democracy and constitutional change. Theoria 43Google Scholar
  85. Ingham JF (1928–1929) Unconstitutional amendments. Dickinson Law Rev 33:161, 165–166Google Scholar
  86. Issacharoff S (2012) In: Harvey C, Schwartz A (eds) Managing conflict through democracy. pp 33, 45Google Scholar
  87. Iyer K (2003) A constitutional miscellany, 2nd edn. Eastern Book Company, Uttar Pradesh, pp 1, 2Google Scholar
  88. Jackson V (2013) Unconstitutional constitutional amendments: a window into constitutional theory and transnational constitutionalism. In: Wallrabenstein A, Dann P, Bäuerle M (eds) Demokratie-Perspektiven Festschrift für Brun-Otto Bryde zum 70, Mohr Siebeck, Germany, p 47Google Scholar
  89. Jacobsohn GJ (2006) Constitutional identity. Rev Politics 68:361, 363Google Scholar
  90. Jacobsohn GJ (2010a) Constitutional identity. Harvard University Press, USA, pp 133, 335Google Scholar
  91. Jacobsohn GJ (2010b) The disharmonic constitution. In: Tulis JK, Macedo S (eds) The limits of constitutional democracy. Princeton University Press, Princeton, p 47Google Scholar
  92. Joseph PA, Walker GR (1987) A theory of constitutional change. Oxford J Legal Stud 7:155, 159Google Scholar
  93. Katz E (1995–1996) On amending constitutions: the legality and legitimacy of constitutional entrenchment. Columbia J Law Soc Probl 29:251, 273Google Scholar
  94. Kay RS (1997) Legal rhetoric and revolutionary change. Caribbean Law Rev 7:161, 163Google Scholar
  95. Keshavamurthy CV (1982) Amending power under the Indian constitution—basic structure limitations. Deep & Deep, New Delhi, p 89Google Scholar
  96. Klarman MJ (1997) Antifidelity. South Calif Law Rev 70:381, 382Google Scholar
  97. Klein C (1999) A propos constituent power: some general views in a modern context. In: Jyränki A (ed) National constitutions in the era of integration. Kluwer Law International, pp 31, 37–38Google Scholar
  98. Köybaşi S (this volume) Amending the unamendable: the case of article 20 of the German basic lawGoogle Scholar
  99. Kyvig DE (1996) Appealing Supreme Court decisions: constitutional amendments as checks on judicial review. J Supreme Court Hist 21(2):106Google Scholar
  100. Kyvig DE (2000) Arranging for amendment: unintended outcome of constitutional design. In: Kyvig DE (ed) Unintended consequences of constitutional amendment. University of Georgia Press, USA, pp 9, 10Google Scholar
  101. Lakshminath A (1978) Justiciability of constitutional amendments. In: Dhavan R, Jacob A (eds) Indian constitution—trends and issues. N.M. Tripathi Private Ltd., Mumbai, pp 144, 159Google Scholar
  102. Landau D (2013) Abusive constitutionalism. UC Davis Law Rev 47(1):189Google Scholar
  103. Landfried C (1988) Constitutional review and legislation in the federal Republic of Germany. In: Landfried C (ed) Constitutional review and legislation: an international comparison. Nomos, Germany, p 154Google Scholar
  104. Law DS, Versteeg M (2013) Sham constitutions. Calif Law Rev 101(4):863Google Scholar
  105. Linder D (1981) What in the constitution cannot be amended? Ariz Law Rev 23:717Google Scholar
  106. Lowernstein K (1972) Constitutions, constitutional law. In: Kenig CD (ed) Marxism, communism, and western society: a comparative encyclopedia (Herder and Herder 1972), p 169Google Scholar
  107. Loughlin M (2014) The concept of constituent power. Eur J Polit Theor 13(2):218, 231–232Google Scholar
  108. Lowell L (1918) Greater European governments. Harvard University Press, USA, p 103Google Scholar
  109. Machen AW (1909–1910) Is the fifteenth amendment void? Harvard Law Rev 23:169–170Google Scholar
  110. Madhava Menon NR (2006) Basic structure: after 30 years’ and R.K.P, Shankardass, ‘anomalies of the ‘doctrine’’. In: Chopra P (ed) The Supreme Court versus the constitution: a challenge to federalism. Sage, USA, pp 59, 137, 138Google Scholar
  111. Maia L (2000) The creation and amending process in the Brazilian constitution. In: Andenas M (ed) The creation and amendment of constitutional norms. BIICL, London, pp 54, 60Google Scholar
  112. Marbury WL (1919–1920) The limitations upon the amending power. Harvard Law Rev 33:223, 225Google Scholar
  113. Masri M (this volume) Unamendability in Israel: a critical perspectiveGoogle Scholar
  114. Mazzone J (2005) Unamendments. Iowa Law Rev 90:1747, 1818Google Scholar
  115. McConnell MW (1998) Textualism and the dead hand of the past. Geo Wash Law Rev 60:1127–1128Google Scholar
  116. McGovney DO (1920) Is the eighteenth amendment void because of its contents? Columbia Law Rev 20:499, 511–513Google Scholar
  117. McIlwain CH (1975) Constitutionalism: ancient and modern. Liberty Fund Inc., Indianapolis, p 132Google Scholar
  118. Mendes CH (2005) Judicial review of constitutional amendments in the Brazilian Supreme Court. Fla J Int Law 17:449, 461, 721Google Scholar
  119. Michel S, Cofone IN (this volume) Credible commitment or paternalism? the case of unamendabilityGoogle Scholar
  120. Michelman FI (1998) Brennan and democracy. Calif Law Rev 86:399, 419Google Scholar
  121. Mohallem MF (2011) Immutable clauses and judicial review in India, Brazil and South Africa: expanding constitutional courts’ authority. Int J Hum Rights 15(5):765, 766–767Google Scholar
  122. Morris JMF (1909) The fifteenth amendment to the federal constitution. North Am Rev 189:82, 85Google Scholar
  123. Moses B (1891) Constitution of the United States of Mexico: antecedents. Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci 2:1, 4Google Scholar
  124. Mulford E (1870) The nation: the foundations of civil order and political life in the United States. Hurd and Houghton, New York, p 155Google Scholar
  125. Muñiz-Fraticelli VM (2009) The problem of a perpetual constitution. In: Gosseries A, Meyer L (eds) Intergenerational justice. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 379–380Google Scholar
  126. Murphy WF (1987) Slaughter-house, civil rights, and limits on constitutional change. Am J Juris 32:1, 12–13Google Scholar
  127. Murphy WF (1992) Staggering toward the new jerusalem of constitutional theory: a response to ralph F. Gaebler. Am J Juris 37:337, 348Google Scholar
  128. Murphy WF (1995) In: Levinson S (ed) Merlin’s memory: the past and future imperfect of the once and future polity. pp 163, 177Google Scholar
  129. Murphy WF (2007) Constitutional democracy: creating and maintaining a just political order. Johns Hopkins University Press, USA, p 506Google Scholar
  130. Nahar S, Dadoo A (2008) Constituent power & sovereignty: in light of amendments to the Indian constitution. NUJS Law Rev 1:559, 571Google Scholar
  131. Nielsen K (1979) On the choice between reform and revolution. In: Johnson HJ, Leach JJ, Muehlmann RG (eds) Revolutions, systems, and theories—essays in political philosophy. D. Reidel Publishing Company, USA, pp 155, 157Google Scholar
  132. Nogueira CG (2005) A Impossibilidade de as cláusulas pétreas vincularem as gerações futuras. Revista de Informação Legislativa 42(166):79, 84Google Scholar
  133. O’Connell R (1999) Guardians of the constitution: unconstitutional constitutional norms. J Civ Liberties 4:48, 51Google Scholar
  134. Olcay T (this volume) Unamendability of amendable clauses: the case of the Turkish constitutionGoogle Scholar
  135. Opsahl T (1991–1992) The reflection of social values in the constitutional history of Norway—some illustrations. Holdsworth Law Rev 15:181, 185–186Google Scholar
  136. Orfield LB (1929–1930) The scope of the federal amending power. Mich Law Rev 28:550, 581Google Scholar
  137. Orfield LB (1942) The amending the federal constitution. Callaghan & Company, Pennsylvania, p 85Google Scholar
  138. Paine T, Philp M (1998) In: Philp M (ed) Rights of man, common sense, and other political writings. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 91–92Google Scholar
  139. Pettys TE (2008) Popular constitutionalism and relaxing the dead hand: can the people be trusted? Wash Univ Law Rev 86:313, 332Google Scholar
  140. Pfersmann O (2009) Ontological and epistemological complexity in comparative constitutional law. In: Engelbrekt AB, Nergelius J (eds) New directions in comparative law. Edward Elgar Publishing, UK, pp 81, 88Google Scholar
  141. Pfersmann O (2012) Unconstitutional constitutional amendment: a normativist approach. Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht 67:81, 103Google Scholar
  142. Pillsbury AE (1909) The war amendment. North Am Rev 189:741–743Google Scholar
  143. Pilpilidis K (this volume) A constitution for eternity: an economic theory of explicit unamendabilityGoogle Scholar
  144. Ponthoreau MC, Ziller J (2002) The experience of the French Conseil Constitutionnel: political and social context and current legal-theoretical debates. In: Wojciech S (ed) Constitutional justice, east and west: democratic legitimacy and constitutional courts in post-communist Europe in a comparative perspective. Springer, Berlin, pp 119, 140Google Scholar
  145. Radin M (1934–35) The judicial review of statutes in continental Europe. W Va Law Q 41:112, 115Google Scholar
  146. Roel S (1968) History of Mexican constitutional experience: from Zitacuaro, 1811, to Queretaro, 1917. Calif W Law Rev 4(2):251, 256–259Google Scholar
  147. Rosenfeld M (1994–1995) The identity of the constitutional subject. Cardozo Law Rev 16:1049Google Scholar
  148. Rosenfeld M (2005) Constitutional adjudication in Europe and the United States: paradoxes and contrasts. In: European and US constitutionalism. Council of Europe, pp 165, 186 fn 80Google Scholar
  149. Rostow EV (1952) The democratic character of judicial review. Harvard Law Rev 66(2):193, 195Google Scholar
  150. Rousseau D (1994) The constitutional judge: master or slave of the constitution? In: Rosenfeld M (ed) Constitutionalism, identity, difference, and legitimacy: theoretical perspectives. Duke University Press, USA, pp 261, 273–282Google Scholar
  151. Roznai Y (2012) The migration of the indian basic structure doctrine. In: Lokendra M (ed) Judicial activism in India—a festschrift in honour of justice V. R. Krishna Iyer. Universal Law Publishing Co., Uttar Pradesh, p 240Google Scholar
  152. Roznai Y (2013a) Is judicial review of constitutional amendments undemocratic? (17.10.2013) ICONnect. http://www.iconnectblog.com/2013/10/article-review-response-carlos-bernal-pulido-and-yaniv-roznai-on-unconstitutional-constitutional-amendments
  153. Roznai Y (2013b) The theory and practice of ‘supra-constitutional’ limits on constitutional amendments. ICLQ 62(3):557Google Scholar
  154. Roznai Y (2013c) Unconstitutional constitutional amendments—the migration and success of a constitutional idea. Am J Com Law 61(3):657Google Scholar
  155. Roznai Y (2014a) Amending “unamendable” provisions’ (20 October 2014) constitution-making & constitutional change blog. http://constitutional-change.com/amending-unamendable-provisions/
  156. Roznai Y (2014b) Legisprudence limitations on constitutional amendments? reflections on the czech constitutional court’s declaration of unconstitutional constitutional act. ICL 8(1):29Google Scholar
  157. Roznai Y (2015) Unamendability and the genetic code of the constitution. Eur Rev Public Law 27(2):775Google Scholar
  158. Roznai Y (2017a) ‘We the people’, ‘oui, the people’ and the collective body: perceptions of constituent power. In: Jacobsohn G, Schor M (eds) Comparative constitutional theory. Edward Elger, UKGoogle Scholar
  159. Roznai Y (2017b) Constituent powers, amendment powers and popular sovereignty: linking unamendability and amendment procedures. In: Albert R, Contiades X, Fotiado A (eds) The foundations and traditions of constitutional amendment. Hart Publishing, UK, p 23Google Scholar
  160. Roznai Y (2017c) Towards a theory of constitutional unamendability: on the nature and scope of the constitutional amendment powers. Jus Politicum – Revue de Droit Politique 18:5Google Scholar
  161. Roznai Y, Suteu S (2015) Eternal territory? The crimean crisis and Ukraine’s territorial integrity as an unamendable principle. German Law J 16(3):542Google Scholar
  162. Roznai Y, Yolcu S (2012) An unconstitutional constitutional amendment—the Turkish perspective: a comment on the Turkish constitutional court’s headscarf decision. Int J Const Law 10(1):175Google Scholar
  163. Rubenfeld J (1997–1998) The moment and the millennium. George Wash Law Rev 66:1085Google Scholar
  164. Sachs A (1996–1997) South Africa’s unconstitutional constitution: the transition from power to lawful power. Saint Louis Univ Law J 41:1249Google Scholar
  165. Sager LG (1995–1996) The dead hand and constitutional amendment. Harvard J Law Public Policy 19:275Google Scholar
  166. Samaha AM (2008) Dead hand arguments and constitutional interpretation. Columbia Law Rev 108:606Google Scholar
  167. Sapir G (2010) The constitutional revolution—past, present and future. Miskal, Yedioth Ahronoth Books, pp 178–179 [Heb]Google Scholar
  168. Schaffner J (2005) The federal marriage amendment: to protect the sanctity of marriage or destroy constitutional democracy? Am Univ Law Rev 54:1487, 1493Google Scholar
  169. Schmitt C (2008) Constitutional theory (trans: Seitrzer J). Duke University Press, Durham, p 152Google Scholar
  170. Schwartzberg M (2009) Democracy and legal change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 2Google Scholar
  171. Schweber H (2007) The language of liberal constitutionalism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 137Google Scholar
  172. Scotti VR (this volume) Unamendable constitutional provisions and the European common constitutional heritage. A comparison among three waves of constitutionalismGoogle Scholar
  173. Singh DK (1966) “What cannot be done directly cannot be done indirectly”: its meaning and logical status in constitutionalism. Mod Law Rev 29:273Google Scholar
  174. Smith E (2011) Old and protected? on the “supra-constitutional” clause in the constitution of Norway. Isr Law Rev 44(3):369, 375Google Scholar
  175. Spiliotopoulos E (1983) Judicial review of legislative acts in Greece. Temp Law Q 56:463, 466–467Google Scholar
  176. Sripati V (1998) Toward fifty years of constitutionalism and fundamental rights in India: looking back to see ahead (1950–2000). Am Univ Int Law Rev 14(2):413, 480Google Scholar
  177. Stith R (1996) Unconstitutional constitutional amendments; The extraordinary power of Nepal’s supreme court. Am UJ Intl L Pol’y 11:47Google Scholar
  178. Suber P (1999) Amendment. In: Gray CB (ed) Philosophy of law: an encyclopaedia I. Garland Pub. Co, New York and London, pp 31–32Google Scholar
  179. Suksi M (1995) Making a constitution: The outline of an argument. Rättsvetenskapliga Institutionen, p 6Google Scholar
  180. Sweet AS (2000) Governing with judges: constitutional politics in Europe. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 89Google Scholar
  181. Tobisch K (2011) Public procurement law and effective legal protection. Vienna J Int Const Law 424, 427Google Scholar
  182. Tribe LH (1983) A constitution we are amending: in defense of a restrained judicial role. Harvard Law Rev 97:433, 440–443Google Scholar
  183. Tribe LH (2000) American constitutional law, 3rd edn. Foundation Press, pp 111–114Google Scholar
  184. Troper M (2003) The logic of justification of judicial review. Int J Const Law 1(1) :99, 113Google Scholar
  185. Tushnet M (2012–2013) Constitution-making: an introduction. Tex Law Rev 91:1983, 2007Google Scholar
  186. Tushnet M (2015) Peasants with pitchforks, and toilers with twitter: constitutional revolutions and the constituent power. ICON 13(3):639, 642–643Google Scholar
  187. Tushnet M (2018) Amendment theory. In: Jacobsohn G, Schor M (eds) Comparative constitutional theory. Edward Elger, UKGoogle Scholar
  188. Vanossi JRA (2000) Teoria constitutional, 2nd edn. Depalma, p 188Google Scholar
  189. Vedel G (1992) Schengen et Maastricht (à propos de la décision n°91-294 DC du Conseil constitutionnel du 25 juillet 1991). Revue Française de Droit Administratif 8(2):173Google Scholar
  190. Vile JR (1985) Limitations on the constitutional amending process. Const Comment 2:373, 383Google Scholar
  191. Vile JR (1990–1991) Legally amending the united states constitution: the exclusivity of article V’s mechanisms. Cumberland Law Rev (1990-1991) 21:271, 295Google Scholar
  192. Vile JR (1995) In: Levinson S (ed) The case against implicit limits on the constitutional amending process. pp 191, 198–199Google Scholar
  193. Widner J, Contiades X (2013) Constitution-writing process. In: Tushnet M, Fleiner T, Saunders C (eds) Routledge handbook of constitutional law. Routledge, London, pp 57, 58Google Scholar
  194. Williams GW (1928) What, if any, limitations are there upon the power to amend the constitution of the United States? Am Law Rev 62:529, 544Google Scholar
  195. Wood GS (1998) The creation of the American Republic 1776–1787. University of North Carolina Press, USA, pp 377, 379Google Scholar
  196. Wright S (1994) The constitutional implications in France of the Maastricht treaty. Tulane Eur Civ Law Forum 9:35, 72Google Scholar
  197. Wright S (2005) The self-restraint of the French Conseil Constitutionnel in 2003 and 2004. Eur Pub Law 11(4):495Google Scholar
  198. Yap PJ (2006–2007) Rethinking constitutional review in America and the commonwealth: judicial protection of human rights in the common law world. Georgia J Int Comp Law 35:99, 104–105Google Scholar
  199. Yap PJ (2015) The conundrum of unconstitutional constitutional amendments. Global Constitutionalism 4:114, 116–118Google Scholar
  200. Yeaman GH (1871) The study of government. Little, Brown and co., USA, pp 710–711Google Scholar
  201. Yegen O (this volume) Debates on unamendable articles: deadlock on Turkey’s constitution-making processGoogle Scholar
  202. Zweig E (1909) Die Lehre vom Pouvoir Constituant. Tiibingen, p 324Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Radzyner School of LawInterdisciplinary Center (IDC)HerzliyaIsrael

Personalised recommendations