Advertisement

Unamendable Constitutional Provisions and the European Common Constitutional Heritage: A Comparison Among Three Waves of Constitutionalism

  • Valentina Rita ScottiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice book series (IUSGENT, volume 68)

Abstract

When debating which constitutional values are shared among European countries, scholars increasingly refer to the European Common Constitutional Heritage, which is a common set of values defined through their constitutional evolution and thanks to the role played by supranational regional organizations, such as the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Union (EU). This essay discusses the interplay between said common heritage and the unamendable provisions in constitutions approved in Italy and Germany after World War II and in Romania and Czech Republic after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Given that European values crossed continental borders thanks to regional forms of cooperation, this essay also analyzes the Constitutions of Morocco and Tunisia in order to understand whether the unamendable constitutional provisions of each country, introduced after the so-called Arab Spring, have been influenced by and are consistent with the European Common Constitutional Heritage.

References

  1. Abraham M (2000) Judicial role in constitutional amendments in India: the basic structure doctrine. In: Andenas M (ed) The creation and amendment of constitutional norms. BIICL, p 195Google Scholar
  2. Albert R (2008) Counterconstitutionalism. Dalhousie Law J 31:15Google Scholar
  3. Albert R (2013) The expressive function of constitutional amendment rules. McGill Law J 59:225Google Scholar
  4. Alicino F, Gradoli M (2013) L’Islam nel XXI secolo e gli international human rights. In: Bonella CD (ed) Tradizioni religiose e tradizioni costituzionali. CarocciGoogle Scholar
  5. Andhyarujina TR (2012) The Kesavananda Bharati case. The untold story of struggle for supremacy by supreme court and parliament. Universal Law PublishingGoogle Scholar
  6. Arai Y, Arai-Takahashi Y (eds) (2002) The margin of appreciation doctrine and the principle of proportionality in the jurisprudence of the ECHR. IntersentiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Arné S (1993) Existe-t-il des norms supra-constitutionnelles? Revue du Droit public 2:460Google Scholar
  8. Baldassarre A (1989) Diritti Inviolabili. In: Enciclopedia Giuridica, pp 11Google Scholar
  9. Biagi F (2015) The pilot of a limited change: Mohamed VI and the transition in Morocco. In Frosini J, Biagi F (eds) Political and constitutional transitions in North Africa: actors and factors. RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  10. Blokker P (2013) Constitution-making in Romania: from reiterative crises to constitutional moment? Rom J Comp Law 2:187Google Scholar
  11. Brown N (2002) Constitution in a non-constitutional world: Arab basic laws and the prospects for accountable governments. SUNY PressGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown N (2003) Palestinian politics after the Oslo accord: resuming the Arab Palestine. University of California PressGoogle Scholar
  13. Burdeau G, Hamon F Troper M (1993) Droit constitutionnel. Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence, p 356Google Scholar
  14. Cheli E (2006) Lo Stato costituzionale. Radici e prospettive. ESI, pp 32–33Google Scholar
  15. Crisafulli V (1958) Aspetti problematici del sistema parlamentare vigente in Italia. Jus 9:188Google Scholar
  16. Elster J (1991) Constitutionalism in Eastern Europe: an introduction. Univ Chicago Law Rev 58:448Google Scholar
  17. Elster J (1994) Transition, constitution-making and separation in Czechoslovakia. IRIS Working Pap 145:10Google Scholar
  18. Fox GH, Nolte G (1995) Intolerant democracies. Harvard Int Law J 36:19Google Scholar
  19. Fusaro C, Oliver D (2011) Towards a theory of constitutional change. In: Fusaro C, Oliver D (eds) How constitutions change. A comparative study. Bloomsbury PublishingGoogle Scholar
  20. Guastini R (2007) Esercizi di interpretazione dell’art. 2 Cost. Ragion Pratica 29:333Google Scholar
  21. Haberle P (2000) The constitutional state and its reform requirements. Ratio Juris 13:79Google Scholar
  22. Huntington SP (1991) The third wave: democratization in the late twenty century. University of Oklahoma Press, pp 35–48Google Scholar
  23. Kelsen H (1967) The pure theory of law (trans: German, second edition of 1960). University of California PressGoogle Scholar
  24. Klein C, Sajò A (2012) Constitution-making: process and substance. In: Rosenfeld M, Sajó A (eds) The oxford handbook of comparative constitutional law. Oxford University Press, p 437Google Scholar
  25. Kuklík J (2015) Czech law in historical contexts. Karolinum PressGoogle Scholar
  26. Lanchester F (2002) Le Costituzioni tedesche da Francoforte a Bonn. In: Giuffré, pp 81–84Google Scholar
  27. Levinson S (ed) (1995) Responding to imperfection. The theory and practice of constitutional amendment. Princeton UniversityGoogle Scholar
  28. Lungu I (2002) Romanian constitutional nationalism. Pol Sociol Rev 140:397Google Scholar
  29. McIlwain CH (1940) Constitutionalism: ancient and modern. Cornell University PressGoogle Scholar
  30. Morlino L (2008) Hybrid regimes or regimes in transition? FRIDE Working Paper, p 70Google Scholar
  31. Morlino L, Magen A (2004) EU rule of law promotion in Romania, Turkey and Serbia-Montenegro: Domestic elites and responsiveness to differentiated external influence. In: Paper for the workshop on ‘Promoting Democracy and the Rule of Law: America and European Strategies and Instruments’. Stanford University 4–5 Oct 2004, p 5Google Scholar
  32. Mortati C (1946) La Costituzione di Weimar. SansoniGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphy WF (1995) Merlin’s memory: the past and future imperfect of the once and future polity. In: Levinson S (ed) Responding to imperfection. The theory and practice of constitutional amendment. Princeton University. p 167Google Scholar
  34. Pasti V (1997) The challenges of transition. Romania in transition. Boulder East European MonographsGoogle Scholar
  35. Preuss UK (2011) The implication of “eternity clause”: the German experience. Isr Law Rev 44:429Google Scholar
  36. Rosenfeld M, Sajó A (eds) (2012) The Oxford handbook of comparative constitutional law. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  37. Rousseau D (1997) European constitutional heritage: a condition for European constitutional law. Federalist 2:57Google Scholar
  38. Roznai Y (2013) Unconstitutional constitutional amendments. The migration and success of a constitutional idea. Am J Const Law 61:657Google Scholar
  39. Roznai Y (2014) Unconstitutional constitutional amendments: a study of the nature and limits of constitutional amendment power. A thesis submitted to the Department of Law of the London School of Economics and Political Science, p 86Google Scholar
  40. Sajò A (1996) Western rights? Post-communist application. Kluwer Law InternationalGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmitt C (2004) Legality and legitimacy. Duke University PressGoogle Scholar
  42. Schmitt (2008) Constitutional theory. Duke University Press, DurhamGoogle Scholar
  43. Schütze R (2012) European constitutional law. Cambridge University Press, pp 410–418Google Scholar
  44. Sieyés EJ (1789) Préliminaire de la Constitution. Reconnaissance et exposition des droits de l’homme, 1st edn. Baudouin, p 18Google Scholar
  45. Slaughter A-M, Sweet AS, Weiler J (eds) (1998) The European court and national courts: Doctrine and Jurisprudence: legal change in its social context. Bloomsbury PublishingGoogle Scholar
  46. Sunstein CR (2009) A constitution of many minds. Princeton University Press, p 1–16Google Scholar
  47. Valea DC (2011) The Control of constitutionality of the initiatives for the revision of the Romanian constitution. Curentul Juridic 47:91Google Scholar
  48. Venice Commission (2010) Report on constitutional amendment. CDL-AD(2010)001, 19 Jan 2010Google Scholar
  49. Venice Commission (2013) Opinion on the final draft constitution of the republic of Tunisia, 17 Oct 2013, CDL-AD(2013)032Google Scholar
  50. Venice Commission (2014) Opinion on the draft law of Romania, 24 Mar 2014, CDL-AD(2014)010Google Scholar
  51. Williams K (2011) When a constitutional amendment violates the “substantive core”: the czech constitutional court’s September 2009 early elections decision. Rev Central Eastern Eur Law 36:33Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceLUISS University of RomeRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations