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Extraction 2018 pp 2541–2553Cite as

Recycling of Li-Ion and Li-Solid State Batteries: The Role of Hydrometallurgy

Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

Since their commercialization in the early 1990s, lithium -ion batteries (LIBs) have become ubiquitous for powering a myriad of portable electronics. Their usage now extends to the automotive industry and stationary energy storage market. With an average life of 6.2 years and the strong demand, the volume of spent LIBs has increased exponentially, making recycling mandatory. Currently, recycling /recovery of spent LIBs is limited in comparison to all other types of batteries . The current processes focus mainly on the recovery of the most valuable metals such as cobalt and nickel , leaving lithium and phosphate in a low value end-product. It is necessary that new advanced recycling technologies are developed for the recovery of spent LIBs both from an economic and environmental perspective. In this paper, the current R&D status of LIBs recycling is reviewed with the emphasis placed on hydrometallurgical processing opportunities for Li-ion and Li-solid state batteries .

Keywords

  • Recycling
  • LFP battery
  • Process review
  • Hydrometallurgy

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Refers to charging or discharging current rate. 1C corresponds to full charge or discharge in 1 h.

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Acknowledgements

This study is supported by a Hydro-Quebec MITACS Accelerate Scholarship.

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Correspondence to François Larouche .

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Larouche, F., Demopoulos, G.P., Amouzegar, K., Bouchard, P., Zaghib, K. (2018). Recycling of Li-Ion and Li-Solid State Batteries: The Role of Hydrometallurgy. In: , et al. Extraction 2018. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-95022-8_214

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