Further Elaboration of the Hypotheses

  • Ann Margaret Doyle


Three factors were identified in Chap.  1 to explain the variation in how France and England went about reducing social inequality in education and why there is a stronger discourse of egalitarianism in French than in English education during the period 1789–1939. Each of these factors: persistence of ideology, social-class alliances and, the nature of the state is expanded on here and an explanation as to why they are essential to explaining this variation is put forward. Furthermore, a theoretical background to understanding the concepts which underpin the hypotheses is provided. How each will be tested through the historical data is also outlined.


  1. Althusser, L. 1966. Teoria, Practica teorica y formacion teorica. Ideologia y lucha ideologica. Havana: Casa de Las Américas.Google Scholar
  2. Althusser, L. 1971. Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. In Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. London: New Left Books.Google Scholar
  3. Althusser, L. 1977. For Marx. Trans. B. Brewster. London: New Left Books.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, P. 1964. The Origins of the Present Crisis. New Left Review 23 (January/February): 26–53.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, R.D. 1975. Education in France, 1848–1870. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bradley, Harriet. 1992. Changing Social Structures: Class and Gender. In Formations of Modernity, ed. S. Hall and B. Gieben. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  7. de Tocqueville, A. 1955. The Old Regime and the French Revolution. Trans. S. Gilbert. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  8. Forster, W. E. 1870. Speech by Mr. W. E. Forster Introducing Elementary Education Bill, February 17. London: House of Commons.Google Scholar
  9. Fraser, D. 1973. The Evolution of the British Welfare Stat: A History of Social Policy since the Industrial Revolution. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Furet, F. 1981. Interpreting the French Revolution. Trans. Elborg Forster. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Gamble, A. 1994. Britain in Decline: Economic Policy, Political Strategy and the British State. 4th ed. New York: St Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gramsci, A. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wishart.Google Scholar
  13. Green, A. 1990. Education and State Formation: The Rise of Education Systems in England, France and the USA. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. Held, D. 1987. Models of Democracy. London: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  15. Hobsbawm, E.J. 1968. Industry and Empire: An Economic History of Britain since 1750. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.Google Scholar
  16. Hodge, C.C. 1994. The Trammels of Tradition: Social Democracy in Britain, France, and Germany. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  17. Larrain, J. 1979. The Concept of Ideology. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  18. Luebbert, G.M. 1991. Liberalism, Fascism or Socal Democracy: Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Mahoney, J., and D. Eds Rueschemeyer. 2003. Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marquand, D. 1988. The Unprincipled Society. London: Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
  21. Marx, K. 1973. The British Constitution. In Surveys from Exile, ed. D. Fernbach. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  22. McLennan, G., D. Held, and S. Hall, eds. 1984. State and Society in Contemporary Britain: A Critical Introduction. London: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  23. Moore, B. 1966. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  24. Palmer, R.R. 1985. The Improvement of Humanity: Education and the French Revolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Perkin, H. 1969. The Origins of Modern English Society, 1780–1880. London: Routledge and K. Paul.Google Scholar
  26. Rueschemeyer, D., E. Huber Stephens, and J.D. Stephens. 1992. Capitalist Development and Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  27. Schnapper, D. 1994. La Communauté des citoyens: sur l’idée neuve de nation. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  28. Skocpol, T. 1979. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia and China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tilly, C. 1992. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990–1992. London: Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann Margaret Doyle
    • 1
  1. 1.UCL Institute of EducationUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations