Parental Cognitions: Relations to Parenting and Child Behavior

  • Charlotte JohnstonEmail author
  • Joanne L. Park
  • Natalie V. Miller


Parents’ thoughts about their children and about parenting are an integral aspect of family interactions. This chapter focuses on various cognitions of parents, including both stable and general beliefs, expectations, and attributional patterns related to children, child behavior, and parenting, as well as more dynamic cognitions that frequently occur in the context of ongoing parent–child interactions. We begin the chapter with an overview of the common theoretical models that underlie the research in this area. We then consider the various types of parental cognitions, highlighting evidence regarding the transactional nature of their associations with parenting and child outcomes. The review of evidence concludes with a summary of the strengths and limitations within this research body, and offers suggestions for future directions. Finally, the last section of the chapter focuses on the clinical implications of understanding parental cognitions and the potential benefits that may accrue if researchers and practitioners listen carefully to the thoughts of parents as they strive to fulfil their parenting role and bring to fruition their aspirations for their children.


Parenting Parent-child Parent cognitions Attributions Beliefs Expectations Self-efficacy 



The writing of this chapter was supported by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada to the first author (SSHRC 2013 435-2013-0137) and by scholarships from the University of British Columbia and the Dr. William Arthur Paskins Memorial Fellowship to the second author.

Disclosure The authors declare that they have no disclosure.


  1. Álvarez, M., Torres, A., Rodríguez, E., Padilla, S., & Rodrigo, M. J. (2013). Attitudes and parenting dimensions in parents’ regulation of internet use by primary and secondary school children. Computers and Education, 67, 69–78. Scholar
  2. Andersen, S. M., Moskowitz, G. B., Blair, I. V., & Nosek, B. A. (2007). Automatic thought. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (2nd ed., pp. 138–175). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  3. Azar, S. T., McGuier, D. J., Miller, E. A., Hernandez-Mekonnen, R., & Johnson, D. R. (2017). Child neglect and maternal cross-relational social cognitive and neurocognitive disturbances. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 8–18. Scholar
  4. Azar, S. T., Reitz, E. B., & Goslin, M. C. (2008). Mothering: Thinking is part of the job description: Application of cognitive views to understanding maladaptive parenting and doing intervention and prevention work. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 295–304. Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman & Company.Google Scholar
  6. Barnett, M. A., Shanahan, L., Deng, M., Haskett, M. E., & Cox, M. J. (2010). Independent and interactive contributions of parenting behaviors and beliefs in the prediction of early childhood behavior problems. Parenting: Science and Practice, 10, 43–59. Scholar
  7. Barrett, J., & Fleming, A. S. (2011). Annual research review: All mothers are not created equal: Neural and psychobiological perspectives on mothering and the importance of individual differences. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 368–397. Scholar
  8. Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker, K. D., Ginsburg, G. S., Domingues, J., & Tein, J.-Y. (2010). Maternal control behavior and locus of control: Examining mechanisms in the relation between maternal anxiety disorders and anxiety symptomatology in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 533–543. Scholar
  10. Bernstein, R. E., Laurent, H. K., Measelle, J. R., Hailey, B. C., & Ablow, J. C. (2013). Little tyrants or just plain tired: Evaluating attributions for caregiving outcomes across the transition to parenthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 851–861. Scholar
  11. Biehle, S. N., & Mickelson, K. D. (2012). First-time parents’ expectations about the division of childcare and play. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 36–45. Scholar
  12. Bornstein, M. H., Hendricks, C., Haynes, O. M., & Painter, K. M. (2007). Maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness: Associations with social context, maternal characteristics, and child characteristics in a multivariate analysis. Infancy, 12, 189–223. Scholar
  13. Bornstein, M. H., Putnick, D. L., & Lansford, J. E. (2011). Parenting attributions and attitudes in cross-cultural perspective. Parenting: Science and Practice, 11, 214–237. Scholar
  14. Bridgett, D. J., Burt, N. M., Edwards, E. S., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2015). Intergenerational transmission of self-regulation: A multidisciplinary review and integrative conceptual framework. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 602–654. Scholar
  15. Bridgett, D. J., Kanya, M. J., Rutherford, H. J. V., & Mayes, L. C. (2017). Maternal executive functioning as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of parenting: Preliminary evidence. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 19–29. Scholar
  16. Bugental, D. B., Corpuz, R., & Schwartz, A. (2012). Preventing children’s aggression: Outcomes of an early intervention. Developmental Psychology, 48, 1443–1449. Scholar
  17. Bugental, D. B., & Happaney, K. (2004). Predicting infant maltreatment in low-income families: The interactive effects of maternal attributions and child status at birth. Developmental Psychology, 40, 234–243. Scholar
  18. Bugental, D. B., & Johnston, C. (2000). Parental and child cognitions in the context of the family. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 315–344. Scholar
  19. Bugental, D. B., Lyon, J. E., Krantz, J., & Cortez, V. (1997). Who’s the boss? Differential accessibility of dominance ideation in parent–child relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1297–1309. Scholar
  20. Bugental, D. B., & Schwartz, A. (2009). A cognitive approach to child mistreatment prevention among medically at-risk infants. Developmental Psychology, 45, 284–288. Scholar
  21. Camilo, C., Garrido, M. V., & Calheiros, M. M. (2016). Implicit measures of child abuse and neglect: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 29, 43–54. Scholar
  22. Castro, V. L., Halberstadt, A. G., Lozada, F. T., & Craig, A. B. (2015). Parents’ emotion-related beliefs, behaviours, and skills predict children’s recognition of emotion. Infant and Child Development, 24, 1–22. Scholar
  23. Chen, M., Johnston, C., Sheeber, L., & Leve, C. (2009). Parent and adolescent depressive symptoms: The role of parental attributions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 119–130. Scholar
  24. Chronis-Tuscano, A., Wang, C. H., Woods, K. E., Strickland, J., & Stein, M. A. (2017). Parent ADHD and evidence-based treatment for their children: Review and directions for future research. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45, 501–517. Scholar
  25. Colalillo, S., & Johnston, C. (2016). Parenting cognition and affective outcomes following parent management training: A systematic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 19, 216. Scholar
  26. Colalillo, S., Miller, N. V., & Johnston, C. (2015). Mother and father attributions for child misbehavior: Relations to child internalizing and externalizing problems. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 34, 788–808. Scholar
  27. Crandall, A., Deater-Deckard, K., & Riley, A. W. (2015). Maternal emotion and cognitive control capacities and parenting: A conceptual framework. Developmental Review, 36, 105–126. Scholar
  28. Creswell, C., Shildrick, S., & Field, A. P. (2011). Interpretation of ambiguity in children: A prospective study of associations with anxiety and parental interpretations. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 240–250. Scholar
  29. Dayton, C. J., Huth-Bocks, A. C., & Busuito, A. (2016). The influence of interpersonal aggression on maternal perceptions of infant emotions: Associations with early parenting quality. Emotion, 16, 436–448. Scholar
  30. de Boer, H., & van der Werf, M. P. C. (2015). Influence of misaligned parents’ aspirations on long-term student academic performance. Educational Research and Evaluation, 21, 232–257. Scholar
  31. Deater-Deckard, K., & Sturge-Apple, M. L. (2017). Introduction to the special section: Mind and matter: New insights on the role of parental cognitive and neurobiological functioning in process models of parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 5–7. Scholar
  32. Defelipe, R. P., Bussab, V. S. R., & Vieira, M. L. (2016). Relationship between postpartum depression and maternal perceptions about ethnotheories and childrearing practices. Early Child Development and Care, 186, 947–958. Scholar
  33. Dix, T., Ruble, D. N., Grusec, J. E., & Nixon, S. (1986). Social cognition in parents: Inferential and affective reactions to children of three age levels. Child Development, 57, 879–894. Scholar
  34. Enlund, E., Aunola, K., Tolvanen, A., & Nurmi, J. E. (2015). Parental causal attributions and emotions in daily learning situations with the child. Journal of Family Psychology, 29, 568–575. Scholar
  35. Feldman, R. (2016). The neurobiology of mammalian parenting and the biosocial context of human caregiving. Hormones and Behavior, 77, 3–17. Scholar
  36. Finegood, E. D., Raver, C. C., DeJoseph, M. L., & Blair, C. (2017). Parenting in poverty: Attention bias and anxiety interact to predict parents’ perceptions of daily parenting hassles. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 51–60. Scholar
  37. Forehand, R., Lafko, N., Parent, J., & Burt, K. B. (2014). Is parenting the mediator of change in behavioral parent training for externalizing problems of youth? Clinical Psychology Review, 34, 608–619. Scholar
  38. Francis, S. E., & Chorpita, B. F. (2011). Parental beliefs about child anxiety as a mediator of parent and child anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 21–29. Scholar
  39. Froiland, J. M., & Davison, M. L. (2014). Parental expectations and school relationships as contributors to adolescents’ positive outcomes. Social Psychology of Education, 17, 1–17. Scholar
  40. García-López, C., Sarriá, E., & Pozo, P. (2016). Parental self-efficacy and positive contributions regarding autism spectrum condition: An actor–partner interdependence model. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 2385–2398. Scholar
  41. Gerdes, A. C., & Hoza, B. (2006). Maternal attributions, affect, and parenting in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and comparison families. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 346–355. Scholar
  42. Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17–41. Scholar
  43. Guion, K., & Mrug, S. (2012). The role of parental and adolescent attributions in adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 19, 262–269. Scholar
  44. Haimovitz, K., & Dweck, C. S. (2016). What predicts children’s fixed and growth intelligence mind-sets? Not their parents’ views of intelligence but their parents’ views of failure. Psychological Science, 27, 859–869. Scholar
  45. Halligan, S. L., Cooper, P. J., Healy, S. J., & Murray, L. (2007). The attribution of hostile intent in mothers, fathers and their children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 594–604. Scholar
  46. Harper, B. D. (2012). Parents’ and children’s beliefs about peer victimization: Attributions, coping responses, and child adjustment. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 32, 387–413. Scholar
  47. Hartley, S. L., Schaidle, E. M., & Burnson, C. F. (2013). Parental attributions for the behavior problems of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 34, 651–660. Scholar
  48. Healy, S. J., Murray, L., Cooper, P. J., Hughes, C., & Halligan, S. L. (2015). A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44, 80–92. Scholar
  49. Heatherington, L., Tolejko, N., McDonald, M., & Funk, J. (2007). Now why’d he do that? The nature and correlates of mothers’ attributions about negative teen behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 315–319. Scholar
  50. Her, P., & Dunsmore, J. C. (2011). Parental beliefs about emotions are associated with early adolescents’ independent and interdependent self-construals. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 317–328. Scholar
  51. Herren, C., In-Albon, T., & Schneider, S. (2013). Beliefs regarding child anxiety and parenting competence in parents of children with separation anxiety disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44, 53–60. Scholar
  52. Hildyard, K., & Wolfe, D. (2007). Cognitive processes associated with child neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 895–907. Scholar
  53. Holmes, E. K., & Huston, A. C. (2010). Understanding positive father-child interaction: Children’s, father’s, and mother’s contributions. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice About Men as Fathers, 8, 203–225. Scholar
  54. Hughes, J. N., Kwok, O. M., & Im, M. H. (2013). Effect of retention in first grade on parents’ educational expectations and children’s academic outcomes. American Educational Research Journal, 50, 1336–1359. Scholar
  55. Im-Bolter, N., Zadeh, Z. Y., & Ling, D. (2013). Early parenting beliefs and academic achievement: The mediating role of language. Early Child Development and Care, 183, 1811–1826. Scholar
  56. Johnston, C. (2011). Mothers’ predictions of their child’s performance on cognitive tasks: Relations to child behavior problems. Child Psychiatry and Human Development., 42, 482–494. Scholar
  57. Johnston, C., Belschner, L., Park, J. L., Stewart, K., Noyes, A., & Schaller, M. (2017). Mothers’ implicit and explicit attitudes and attributions in relation to parenting behavior. Parenting Science and Practice, 17, 51–72. Scholar
  58. Johnston, C., & Freeman, W. S. (1997). Attributions for child behavior in parents of children without behavior disorders and children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 636–645. Scholar
  59. Johnston, C., Hommersen, P., & Seipp, C. M. (2009). Maternal attributions and child oppositional behavior: A longitudinal study of boys with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 189–195. Scholar
  60. Johnston, C., Mah, J. W. T., & Regambal, M. (2010). Parenting cognitions and treatment beliefs as predictors of experience using behavioral parenting strategies in families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behavior Therapy, 41, 491–504. Scholar
  61. Johnston, C., & Ohan, J. L. (2005). The importance of parental attributions in families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity and disruptive behavior disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8, 167–182. Scholar
  62. Johnston, C., Reynolds, S., Freeman, W. S., & Geller, J. (1998). Assessing parent attributions for child behavior using open-ended questions. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 87–97. Scholar
  63. Jones, T. L., & Prinz, R. J. (2005). Potential roles of parental self-efficacy in parent and child adjustment: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 341–363. Scholar
  64. Jung, E. (2016). The development of reading skills in kindergarten influence of parental beliefs about school readiness, family activities, and children’s attitudes to school. International Journal of Early Childhood, 48, 61–78. Scholar
  65. Kirby, A. V. (2016). Parent expectations mediate outcomes for young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 1643–1655. Scholar
  66. Leerkes, E. M., Su, J., Calkins, S., Henrich, V. C., & Smolen, A. (2017). Variation in mothers’ arginine vasopressin receptor 1a and dopamine receptor D4 genes predicts maternal sensitivity via social cognition. Genes, Brain & Behavior, 16, 233–240. Scholar
  67. Leerkes, E. M., Supple, A. J., O’Brien, M., Calkins, S. D., Haltigan, J. D., Wong, M. S., & Fortuna, K. (2015). Antecedents of maternal sensitivity during distressing tasks: Integrating attachment, social information processing, and psychobiological perspectives. Child Development, 86, 94–111. Scholar
  68. Leung, D. W., & Slep, A. M. S. (2006). Predicting inept discipline: The role of parental depressive symptoms, anger, and attributions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 524–534. Scholar
  69. Mägi, K., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Poikkeus, A.-M., Rasku-Puttonen, H., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2011). The cross-lagged relations between children’s academic skill development, task-avoidance, and parental beliefs about success. Learning and Instruction, 21, 664–675. Scholar
  70. Mah, J. W. T., & Johnston, C. (2008). Parental social cognitions: Considerations in the acceptability of and engagement in behavioral parent training. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11, 218–236. Scholar
  71. Manczak, E. M., Mangelsdorf, S. C., McAdams, D. P., Wong, M. S., Schoppe-Sullivan, S., & Brown, G. L. (2016). Autobiographical memories of childhood and sources of subjectivity in parents’ perceptions of infant temperament. Infant Behavior and Development, 44, 77–85. Scholar
  72. Martorell, G. A., & Bugental, D. B. (2006). Maternal variations in stress reactivity: Implications for harsh parenting practices with very young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 641–647. Scholar
  73. Meyer, S., Raikes, H. A., Virmani, E. A., Waters, S., & Thompson, R. A. (2014). Parent emotion representations and the socialization of emotion regulation in the family. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38, 164–173. Scholar
  74. Milner, J. S. (2003). Social information processing in high-risk and physically abusive parents. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27, 7–20. Scholar
  75. Moretti, M. (2009). Effectiveness of an attachment-focused manualized intervention for parents of teens at risk for aggressive behaviour: The Connect Program. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 1347–1357. Scholar
  76. Murayama, K., Pekrun, R., Suzuki, M., Marsh, H. W., & Lichtenfeld, S. (2016). Don’t aim too high for your kids: Parental overaspiration undermines students’ learning in mathematics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111, 766–779. Scholar
  77. Murray, L., Pella, J. E., De Pascalis, L., Arteche, A., Pass, L., Percy, R., … Cooper, P. J. (2014). Socially anxious mothers’ narratives to their children and their relation to child representations and adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 1531–1546. Scholar
  78. Narvaez, D., Braungart-Rieker, J. M., Miller-Graff, L. E., Gettler, L. T., & Hastings, P. D. (2016). Contexts for young child flourishing: Evolution, family, and society. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nelson, D. A., Mitchell, C., & Yang, C. (2008). Intent attributions and aggression: A study of children and their parents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 793–806. Scholar
  80. Nelson, J. A., O’Brien, M., Calkins, S. D., & Keane, S. P. (2013). Mothers’ and fathers’ negative responsibility attributions and perceptions of children’s problem behavior. Personal Relationships, 20, 719–727. Scholar
  81. Ninowski, J. E., Mash, E. J., & Benzies, K. M. (2007). Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in first-time expectant women: Relations with parenting cognitions and behaviors. Infant Mental Health Journal, 28, 54–75. Scholar
  82. Nosek, B. A., & Smyth, F. L. (2007). A multitrait-multimethod validation of the Implicit Association Test: Implicit and explicit attitudes are related but distinct constructs. Experimental Psychology, 54, 14–29. Scholar
  83. Park, J. L., & Johnston, C. (2016). Mothers’ attributions for positive and negative child behavior: Associations with mothers’ attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Journal of Attention Disorders.
  84. Pauli-Pott, U., Mertesacker, B., Bade, U., Haverkock, A., & Beckmann, D. (2003). Parental perceptions and infant temperament development. Infant Behavior and Development, 26, 27–48. Scholar
  85. Pidgeon, A. M., & Sanders, M. R. (2009). Attributions, parental anger and risk of maltreatment. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, 2, 57–69.Google Scholar
  86. Pomerantz, E. M., & Dong, W. (2006). Effects of mothers’ perceptions of children’s competence: The moderating role of mothers’ theories of competence. Developmental Psychology, 42, 950–961. Scholar
  87. Puccioni, J. (2015). Parents’ conceptions of school readiness, transition practices, and children’s academic achievement trajectories. The Journal of Educational Research, 108, 130–147. Scholar
  88. Recchia, H. E., Wainryb, C., & Howe, N. (2013). Two sides to every story? Parents’ attributions of culpability and their interventions into sibling conflict. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 59, 1–22. Scholar
  89. Rominov, H., Giallo, R., & Whelan, T. A. (2016). Fathers’ postnatal distress, parenting self-efficacy, later parenting behavior, and children’s emotional-behavioral functioning: A longitudinal study. Journal of Family Psychology, 30, 907–917. Scholar
  90. Rote, W. M., & Smetana, J. G. (2016). Beliefs about parents’ right to know: Domain differences and associations with change in concealment. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 26, 334–344. Scholar
  91. Rudy, D., & Grusec, J. E. (2006). Social cognitive approaches to parenting representations. In O. Mayseless & O. Mayseless (Eds.), Parenting representations: Theory, research, and clinical implications (pp. 79–106). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Runions, K. C., & Keating, D. P. (2007). Young children’s social information processing: Family antecedents and behavioral correlates. Developmental Psychology, 43, 838–849. Scholar
  93. Rutherford, H. J. V., Wallace, N. S., Laurent, H. K., & Mayes, L. C. (2015). Emotion regulation in parenthood. Developmental Review, 36, 1–14. Scholar
  94. Sanders, M. R., Kirby, J. N., Tellegen, C. L., & Day, J. J. (2014). The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A systematic review and meta-analysis of a multi-level system of parenting support. Clinical Psychology Review, 34, 337–357. Scholar
  95. Sanders, M. R., & Mazzucchelli, T. G. (2013). The promotion of self-regulation through parenting interventions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 16, 1–17. Scholar
  96. Sanders, M. R., Pidgeon, A. M., Gravestock, F., Connors, M. D., Brown, S., & Young, R. W. (2004). Does parental attributional retraining and anger management enhance the effects of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program with parents at risk of child maltreatment? Behavior Therapy, 35, 513–535. Scholar
  97. Sanders, M. R., & Woolley, M. L. (2005). The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices: Implications for parent training. Child: Care, Health, & Development, 31, 65–73. Scholar
  98. Schofield, T. J., & Weaver, J. M. (2016). Democratic parenting beliefs and observed parental sensitivity: Reciprocal influences between coparents. Journal of Family Psychology, 30, 509–515. Scholar
  99. Semke, C. A., Garbacz, S. A., Kwon, K., Sheridan, S. M., & Woods, K. E. (2010). Family involvement for children with disruptive behaviors: The role of parenting stress and motivational beliefs. Journal of School Psychology, 48, 293–312. Scholar
  100. Sheeber, L. B., Johnston, C., Chen, M., Leve, C., Hops, H., & Davis, B. (2009). Mothers’ and fathers’ attributions for adolescent behavior: An examination in families of depressed, subdiagnostic, and nondepressed youth. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 871–881. Scholar
  101. Sigel, I. E. (1985). Introduction to parental belief systems: The psychological consequences for children. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  102. Simpkins, S. D., Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2015). The role of parents in the ontogeny of achievement-related motivation and behavioral choices: I. Introduction. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 80, 1–22. Scholar
  103. Slep, A. M. S., & O’Leary, S. G. (1998). The effects of maternal attributions on parenting: An experimental analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 234–243. Scholar
  104. Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., & Wilson, M. N. (2015). Negative relational schemas predict the trajectory of coercive dynamics during early childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology., 43, 693. Scholar
  105. Sturge-Apple, M. L., Rogge, R. D., Skibo, M. A., Peltz, J. S., & Suor, J. H. (2015). A dual-process approach to the role of mother’s implicit and explicit attitudes toward their child in parenting models. Developmental Psychology, 51, 289–300. Scholar
  106. Sturge-Apple, M. L., Suor, J. H., & Skibo, M. A. (2014). Maternal child-centered attributions and harsh discipline: The moderating role of maternal working memory across socioeconomic contexts. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 645–654. Scholar
  107. Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Way, N., Hughes, D., Yoshikawa, H., Kalman, R. K., & Niwa, E. Y. (2008). Parents’ goals for children: The dynamic coexistence of individualism and collectivism in cultures and individuals. Social Development, 17, 183–209. Scholar
  108. Troop-Gordon, W., & Gerardy, H. (2012). Parents’ beliefs about peer victimization and children’s socio-emotional development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33, 40–52. Scholar
  109. Uleman, J. S., Saribay, S. A., & Gonzalez, C. M. (2008). Spontaneous inferences, implicit impressions, and implicit theories. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 329–360. Scholar
  110. van Aar, J., Leijten, P., Orobio de Castro, B., & Overbeek, G. (2017). Sustained, fade-out or sleeper effects? A systematic review and meta-analysis of parenting interventions for disruptive child behavior. Clinical Psychology Review, 51, 153–163. Scholar
  111. van Eldik, W. M., Prinzie, P., Deković, M., & de Haan, A. D. (2017). Longitudinal associations between marital stress and externalizing behavior: Does parental sense of competence mediate processes? Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 420. Scholar
  112. Vélez, C. E., Krause, E. D., Brunwasser, S. M., Freres, D. R., Abenavoli, R. M., & Gillham, J. E. (2015). Parent predictors of adolescents’ explanatory style. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 35, 931–946. Scholar
  113. Vreeswijk, C. M. J. M., Maas, A. J. B. M., & van Bakel, H. J. A. (2012). Parental representations: A systematic review of the Working Model of the Child Interview. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 314–328. Scholar
  114. Wang, Y., & Benner, A. D. (2014). Parent–child discrepancies in educational expectations: Differential effects of actual versus perceived discrepancies. Child Development, 85, 891–900. Scholar
  115. Wang, Z., Deater-Deckard, K., & Bell, M. A. (2016). The role of negative affect and physiological regulation in maternal attribution. Parenting: Science and Practice, 16, 206–218. Scholar
  116. Weiner, J. L., Fisher, A. M., Nowak, G. J., Basket, M. M., & Gellin, B. G. (2015). Childhood immunizations: First-time expectant mothers’ knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49, S426–S434. Scholar
  117. Williamson, D., & Johnston, C. (2015). Maternal and paternal attributions in the prediction of boys’ behavior problems across time. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44, 668–675. Scholar
  118. Williamson, D., & Johnston, C. (2017). Maternal ADHD symptoms and parenting stress: The roles of parenting self-efficacy beliefs and neuroticism. Journal of Attention Disorders.
  119. Wolk, C. B., Caporino, N. E., McQuarrie, S., Settipani, C. A., Podell, J. L., Crawley, S., … Kendall, P. C. (2016). Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and psychometric properties of a measure. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 39, 71–78. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charlotte Johnston
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joanne L. Park
    • 1
  • Natalie V. Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations