Schooling and Academic Attainment

  • Laurie M. BrotmanEmail author
  • R. Gabriela Barajas-Gonzalez
  • Spring Dawson-McClure
  • Esther J. Calzada


This chapter provides an overview of the literature documenting the critical role of parents and parent involvement in children’s schooling and academic attainment. The investment model and the family stress model, two theories in developmental psychology, are used to provide the foundation for the review of evidence relating parents and parenting to schooling and academic attainment. These theoretical models highlight the need to interpret studies on the influence of parents and parenting on child schooling and academic attainment in the context of poverty-related stressors, parent social capital, parent cultural beliefs and values, and racism. Next, the evidence for effects of parents and parenting on academic attainment is considered developmentally in two sections: (1) in early childhood and (2) in later childhood and adolescence. Throughout childhood and adolescence, there is strong evidence that parental involvement in learning and education is linked to better academic outcomes. For younger children, parent involvement in learning is broadly defined to include parenting practices that promote social-emotional learning and self-regulation as well as language, literacy and math skills. For older children, academic socialization, the way in which parents convey value for academic attainment, appears to be most critical. As such, it is of utmost importance that teachers and schools engage families through culturally-relevant and racially conscious practices so that parents feel welcomed, valued, and capable of supporting their children’s academic success.


Schooling Parenting stress Parent involvement Academic success Academic socialization 



The authors declare that they have no disclosure.


  1. Aud, S., Fox, M. A., & KewalRamani, A. (2010). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groups (NCES 2010-015). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  2. Balfanz, R., Bridgeland, J., Bruce, M., & Hornig Fox, J. (2013). Building a grad nation: Progress and challenge in ending the high school dropout epidemic—2013 Annual update. Washington, DC: Civic Enterprises, the Everyone Graduates Center at Johns Hopkins University School of Education, America’s Promise Alliance, and the Alliance for Excellent Education Retrieved from Scholar
  3. Barajas-Gonzalez, R. G., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: Test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(6), 855–866. Scholar
  4. Barajas-Gonzalez, R.G., Calzada, E., Huang, K., Covas, M., Castillo, C., & Brotman, L. (in press). Parent spanking and verbal punishment, and young child internalizing and externalizing behaviors in Latino immigrant families: Test of moderation by context and culture. Parenting: Science and Practice.Google Scholar
  5. Benner, A. D., & Graham, S. (2011). Latino adolescents’ experiences of discrimination across the first 2 years of high school: Correlates and influences on educational outcomes. Child Development, 82(2), 508–519. Scholar
  6. Bierman, K. L., Heinrichs, B. S., Welsh, J. A., Nix, R. L., & Gest, S. D. (2017). Enriching preschool classrooms and home visits with evidence-based programming: Sustained benefits for low-income children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(2), 129–137. Scholar
  7. Bierman, K. L., Morris, P. A., & Abenavoli, R. M. (2017). Parent engagement practices improve outcomes for preschool children. Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center, Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved from
  8. Bierman, K. M., Nix, R. L., Heinrichs, B. S., Domitrovich, C. E., Gest, S. D., Welsh, J. A., & Gill, S. (2008). Effects of Head Start REDI on children’s outcomes 1 year later in different kindergarten contexts. Child Development, 85(1), 140–159. Scholar
  9. Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). Child development in the context of adversity: Experiential canalization of brain and behavior. American Psychologist, 67(4), 309–318. Scholar
  10. Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2015). School readiness and self-regulation: A developmental psychobiological approach. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 711–731. Scholar
  11. Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2016). Poverty, stress, and brain development: New directions for prevention and intervention. Academic Pediatrics, 16(3), S30–S36. Scholar
  12. Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78(2), 647–663. Scholar
  13. Boisjoly, J., Duncan, G. J., & Hofferth, S. (1995). Access to social capital. Journal of Family Issues, 16(5), 609–631. Scholar
  14. Bornstein, M. H. (1995). Parenting infants. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (pp. 3–43). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  15. Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 371–399. Scholar
  16. Brito, N. H., & Noble, K. G. (2014). Socioeconomic status and structural brain development. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8(276), 1–12. Scholar
  17. Brody, G. H., & Flor, D. L. (1997). Maternal psychological functioning, family processes, and child adjustment in rural, single-parent, African American families. Developmental Psychology, 33(6), 1000–1011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G. J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children, 7(2), 55–71. Scholar
  19. Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G., & Aber, J. L. (1997). Policy implications in studying neighborhoods, Neighborhood poverty (Vol. 2). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  20. Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebanov, P. K., & Sealand, N. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? American Journal of Sociology, 99(2), 353–395. Scholar
  21. Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W. J., & Waldfogel, J. (2002). Maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes in the first three years of life: The NICHD study of early child care. Child Development, 73(4), 1052–1072. Scholar
  22. Brotman, L. M., Calzada, E., Huang, K. Y., Kingston, S., Dawson-McClure, S., Kamboukos, D., & Petkova, E. (2011). Promoting effective parenting practices and preventing child behavior problems in school among ethnically diverse families from underserved, urban communities. Child Development, 82(1), 258–276. Scholar
  23. Brotman, L. M., Dawson-McClure, S., Calzada, E. J., Huang, K. Y., Kamboukos, D., Palamar, J. J., & Petkova, E. (2013). Cluster (School) RCT of ParentCorps: Impact on kindergarten academic achievement. Pediatrics, 131(5), e1521–e1529. Scholar
  24. Brotman, L. M., Dawson-McClure, S., Kamboukos, D., Huang, K. Y., Calzada, E. J., Goldfeld, K., & Petkova, E. (2016). Effects of ParentCorps in prekindergarten on child mental health and academic performance: Follow-up of a randomized clinical trial through 8 years of age. Journal of the American Medical Association Pediatrics, 170(12), 1149–1155. Scholar
  25. Brotman, L. M., Gouley, K. K., Huang, K. Y., Kamboukos, D., Fratto, C., & Pine, D. S. (2007). Effects of a psychosocial family-based preventive intervention on cortisol response to a social challenge in preschoolers at high risk for antisocial behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(10), 1172–1179. Scholar
  26. Brown, E. D., & Low, C. M. (2008). Chaotic living conditions and sleep problems associated with children’s responses to academic challenge. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(6), 920–923. Scholar
  27. Bryk, A., Sebring, P., Allensworth, E., Luppescu, S., & Easton, J. (2010). Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  28. Buehler, M. H., Tapogna, J., & Chang, H. N. (2012). Why being in school matters: Chronic absenteeism in Oregon public schools. Eugene, OR: Attendance Works.Google Scholar
  29. Burchinal, M., McCartney, K., Steinberg, L., Crosnoe, R., Friedman, S. L., McLoyd, V., & Pianta, R. (2011). Examining the Black–White achievement gap among low-income children using the NICHD study of early child care and youth development. Child Development, 82(5), 1404–1420. Scholar
  30. Calzada, E., Barajas-Gonzalez, R.G., Huang, K., & Brotman, L. (2017). Early childhood internalizing problems in Mexican- and Dominica-origin children: The role of cultural socialization and parenting practices. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 46, 551–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Carolan, B. V., & Wasserman, S. J. (2015). Does parenting style matter? Concerted cultivation, educational expectations, and the transmission of educational advantage. Sociological Perspectives, 58(2), 168–186. Scholar
  32. Case, A. C., Lubotsky, D., & Paxson, C. (2002). Economic status and health in childhood: The origins of the gradient. American Economic Review, 92(5), 1308–1334. Scholar
  33. Castro, M., Expósito-Casas, E., López-Martín, E., Lizasoain, L., Navarro-Asencio, E., & Gaviria, J. L. (2015). Parental involvement on student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 14, 33–46. Scholar
  34. Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2016). From best practices to breakthrough impacts: A science-based approach to building a more promising future for young children and families. Retrieved from
  35. Chao, R. K. (2000). Cultural explanations for the role of parenting in the school success of Asian American children. In R. W. Taylor & M. C. Wang (Eds.), Resilience across contexts: Family, work, culture and community (pp. 333–363). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Gordon, R. A., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Klebanov, P. K. (1997). Neighborhood and family influences on the intellectual and behavioral competence of preschool and early school-age children, Neighborhood poverty: Context and consequences for children (Vol. 1, pp. 79–118). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  37. Chavous, T. M., Rivas-Drake, D., Smalls, C., Griffin, T., & Cogburn, C. (2008). Gender matters, too: The influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 637. Scholar
  38. Chetty, R., Hendren, N., & Katz, L. F. (2016). The effects of exposure to better neighborhoods on children: New evidence from the Moving to Opportunity experiment. The American Economic Review, 106(4), 855–902. Scholar
  39. Child Trends. (2015). Parental expectations for their children’s educational attainment. Retrieved from
  40. Coard, S. I., Wallace, S. A., Stevenson, H. C., & Brotman, L. M. (2004). Towards culturally relevant preventive interventions: The consideration of racial socialization in parent training with African American families. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13(3), 277–293. Scholar
  41. Coldwell, J., Pike, A., & Dunn, J. (2006). Household chaos—Links with parenting and child behaviour. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(11), 1116–1122. Scholar
  42. Coll, C. G., Crnic, K., Lamberty, G., Wasik, B. H., Jenkins, R., Garcia, H. V., & McAdoo, H. P. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67(5), 1891–1914. Scholar
  43. Comer, J. P. (1995). School power: Implications of an intervention project. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  44. Conger, R. D., & Conger, K. J. (2002). Resilience in Midwestern families: Selected findings from the first decade of a prospective, longitudinal study. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 361–373. Scholar
  45. Conger, R. D., & Donnellan, M. B. (2007). An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development. Annual Review Psychology, 58, 175–199. Scholar
  46. Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (1994). Families in troubled times: Adapting to change in rural America. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine De Grutyer.Google Scholar
  47. Conger, K. J., Rueter, M. A., & Conger, R. D. (2000). The role of economic pressure in the lives of parents and their adolescents: The family stress model. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Cowen, E. L., Wyman, P. A., Work, W. C., & Parker, G. R. (1990). The Rochester Child Resilience Project: Overview and summary of first year findings. Development and Psychopathology, 2(2), 193–212. Scholar
  49. Davis-Kean, P. E. (2005). The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 294. Scholar
  50. Dawson-McClure, S., Calzada, E. J., & Brotman, L. M. (2017). Engaging parents in preventive interventions for young children: Working with cultural diversity within low-income, urban neighborhoods. Prevention Science, 18, 1–11. Scholar
  51. Dawson-McClure, S., Calzada, E., Huang, K. Y., Kamboukos, D., Rhule, D., Kolawole, B., & Brotman, L. M. (2015). A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: Impact on parenting and child conduct problems. Prevention Science, 16(2), 279–290. Scholar
  52. De Cock, E. S., Henrichs, J., Klimstra, T. A., Maas, A. J. B., Vreeswijk, C. M., Meeus, W. H., & van Bakel, H. J. (2017). Longitudinal associations between parental bonding, parenting stress, and executive functioning in toddlerhood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(6), 1723–1733. Scholar
  53. Dearing, E., McCartney, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2001). Change in family income-to-needs matters more for children with less. Child Development, 72(6), 1779–1793. Scholar
  54. Deater-Deckard, K. (2014). Family matters: Intergenerational and interpersonal processes of executive function and attentive behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(3), 230–236. Scholar
  55. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). The Head Start parent, family, and community engagement framework: Engaging families—Prenatal to age 8. Arlington, VA: Office of Head Start, Administration for Children & Families, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Retrieved from Scholar
  56. Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1994). Socialization mediators of the relation between socioeconomic status and child conduct problems. Child Development, 65(2), 649–665. Scholar
  57. Domitrovich, C. E., Cortes, R. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (2007). Improving young children’s social and emotional competence: A randomized trial of the preschool “PATHS” curriculum. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 28(2), 67–91. Scholar
  58. Duncan, G. J., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Klebanov, P. K. (1994). Economic deprivation and early childhood development. Child Development, 65(2), 296–318. Scholar
  59. Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., & Sexton, H. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428. Scholar
  60. Duncan, G. J., Magnuson, K., & Votruba-Drzal, E. (2014). Boosting family income to promote child development. The Future of Children, 24(1), 99–120. Scholar
  61. Eccles, J. S., Wong, C. A., & Peck, S. C. (2006). Ethnicity as a social context for the development of African-American adolescents. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 407–426. Scholar
  62. Elder, G. H., Jr. (1999). Children of the great depression: Social change in life experience. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  63. Eliot, L. (2010). The truth about boys and girls. Scientific American Mind, 21, 22–29. Scholar
  64. Epstein, J. L. (1987). Parent involvement: What research says to administrators. Education and Urban Society, 19(2), 119–136. Scholar
  65. Epstein, J. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  66. Epstein, J. L., & Connors, L. J. (1995). School and family partnerships in the middle grades. In B. Rutherfors (Ed.), Creating family/school partnerships (pp. 137–166). Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association.Google Scholar
  67. Epstein, J. L., & Sanders, M. G. (2002). Family, school, and community partnerships: Your handbook for action. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.Google Scholar
  68. Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59(2), 77–92. Scholar
  69. Evans, G. W. (2006). Child development and the physical environment. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 423–451. Scholar
  70. Evans, G. W., Eckenrode, J., & Marcynyszyn, L. (2010). Poverty and chaos. Chaos and its influence on children’s development: An ecological perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  71. Evans, G. W., & English, K. (2002). The environment of poverty: Multiple stressor exposure, psychophysiological stress, and socioemotional adjustment. Child Development, 73(4), 1238–1248. Scholar
  72. Fryer, R. G., Jr., & Levitt, S. D. (2004). Understanding the black-white test score gap in the first two years of school. Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(2), 447–464. Scholar
  73. Grantham-McGregor, S., Cheung, Y. B., Cueto, S., Glewwe, P., Richter, L., Strupp, B., & the International Child Development Steering Group. (2007). Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. The Lancet, 369, 60–70. Scholar
  74. Grissmer, D., & Eiseman, E. (2008). Can gaps in the quality of early environments and noncognitive skills help explain persisting Black-White achievement gaps? Steady gains and stalled progress: Inequality and the Black-White test score gap. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  75. Grolnick, W. S., & Slowiaczek, M. L. (1994). Parents’ involvement in children’s schooling: A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child Development, 65(1), 237–252. Scholar
  76. Gutman, L. M., & Midgley, C. (2000). The role of protective factors in supporting the academic achievement of poor African American students during the middle school transition. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(2), 223–249. Scholar
  77. Hanscombe, K. B., Haworth, C., Davis, O. S., Jaffee, S. R., & Plomin, R. (2011). Chaotic homes and school achievement: A twin study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(11), 1212–1220. Scholar
  78. Haveman, R., & Wolfe, B. (1994). Succeeding generations: On the effects of investments in children. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  79. Heinrich, C. J. (2014). Parents’ employment and children’s wellbeing. The Future of Children, 24(1), 121–146. Scholar
  80. Hemphill, F., Vanneman, A., & Rahman, T. (2011). How Hispanic and White students in public schools perform in mathematics and reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (No. 2011-459). NCES Report. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  81. Henderson, A. T., & Berla, N. (1994). A new generation of evidence: The family is critical to student achievement. Washington, DC: National Committee for Citizens in Education.Google Scholar
  82. Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement. Annual Synthesis 2002. National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.Google Scholar
  83. Hernandez, D. J. (2011). Double jeopardy: How third-grade reading skills and poverty influence high school graduation. New York, NY: Annie E. Casey Foundation.Google Scholar
  84. Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4), 161–164. Scholar
  85. Hill, N. E., & Tyson, D. F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: A meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 740–763. Scholar
  86. Hindman, A. H., Skibbe, L. E., & Foster, T. D. (2014). Exploring the variety of parental talk during shared book reading and its contributions to preschool language and literacy: Evidence from the early childhood longitudinal study-birth cohort. Reading and Writing, 27(2), 287–313. Scholar
  87. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (1995). Parental involvement in children’s education: Why does it make a difference? Teachers College Record, 97(2), 310–331.Google Scholar
  88. Iruka, I. U., Curenton, S. M., & Eke, W. A. (2014). The CRAF-E4 family engagement model building practitioners’ competence to work with diverse families. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  89. Iruka, I. U., Winn, D.-M. C., Kingsley, S. J., & Orthodoxou, Y., Jr. (2011). Links between parent-teacher relationships and kindergartners’ social skills: Do child ethnicity and family income matter? The Elementary School Journal, 111(3), 387–408. Scholar
  90. Isaacs, J. B. (2012). Starting school at a disadvantage: The school readiness of poor children. The Social Genome Project. Washington, DC: Center on Children and Families at Brookings.Google Scholar
  91. Jackson, A. P., Brooks-Gunn, J., Huang, C., & Glassman, M. (2000). Single mothers in low-wage jobs: Financial strain, parenting, and preschoolers’ outcomes. Child Development, 71(5), 1409–1423. Scholar
  92. Jencks, C., & Mayer, S. E. (1990). The social consequences of growing up in a poor neighborhood. In L. E. Lunn & M. G. H. McGeary (Eds.), Inner-city poverty in the United States (Vol. 186, p. 111). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  93. Jeynes, W. H. (2003). A meta-analysis: The effects of parental involvement on minority children’s academic achievement. Education and Urban Society, 35(2), 202–218. Scholar
  94. Jeynes, W. H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education, 40(3), 237–269. Scholar
  95. Jeynes, W. H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42(1), 82–110. Scholar
  96. Jeynes, W. H. (2012). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of different types of parental involvement programs for urban students. Urban Education, 47(4), 706–742. Scholar
  97. Jeynes, W. (2014). Parental involvement that works…because it’s age-appropriate. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 50, 85–88. Scholar
  98. Jyoti, D. F., Frongillo, E. A., & Jones, S. J. (2005). Food insecurity affects school children’s academic performance, weight gain, and social skills. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(12), 2831–2839. Scholar
  99. Kalil, A., & DeLeire, T. (Eds.). (2004). Family investments in children’s potential: Resources and parenting behaviors that promote success. Abingdon, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  100. Kao, G., & Tienda, M. (1995). Optimism and achievement: The educational performance of immigrant youth. Social Science Quarterly, 76(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
  101. Kao, G., & Tienda, M. (1998). Educational aspirations of minority youth. American Journal of Education, 106(3), 349–384. Scholar
  102. Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2004). K-TEA II: Kaufman test of educational achievement: Comprehensive form manual. Blomington, MN: Pearson.Google Scholar
  103. Kim, Y., Calzada, E. J., Barajas-Gonzalez, R. G., Huang, K. Y., Brotman, L. M., Castro, A., & Pichardo, C. (2017). The role of authoritative and authoritarian parenting in the early academic achievement of Latino students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110, 1–15. Scholar
  104. Klebanov, P. K., Brooks-Gunn, J., & McCormick, M. C. (1994). Classroom behavior of very low birth weight elementary school children. Pediatrics, 94(5), 700–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kohl, G. O., Lengua, L. J., & McMahon, R. J. (2000). Parent involvement in school conceptualizing multiple dimensions and their relations with family and demographic risk factors. Journal of School Psychology, 38(6), 501–523. Scholar
  106. Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. V. (2008). How large an effect can we expect from school reforms? Teachers College Record, 110(8), 1613–1640.Google Scholar
  107. Lee, V., & Burkam, D. (2002). Inequality at the starting gate: Social background differences in achievement as children begin school. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  108. Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 309. Scholar
  109. Linver, M. R., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Kohen, D. E. (2002). Family processes as pathways from income to young children’s development. Developmental Psychology, 38(5), 719–734. Scholar
  110. Mardell-Czudnowski, C., & Goldenberg, D. S. (1998). Developmental indicators of the assessment of learning (3rd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.Google Scholar
  111. Marzano, R. J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  112. Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradović, J., Riley, J. R., & Tellegen, A. (2005). Developmental cascades: Linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41(5), 733. Scholar
  113. Mayer, S. E. (1997). What money can’t buy: Family income and children’s life chances. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  114. McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers’ literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 947–959. Scholar
  115. McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Duncan, R., Bowles, R. P., Acock, A. C., Miao, A., & Pratt, M. E. (2014). Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: The head-toes-knees-shoulders task. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(599), 1–14. Scholar
  116. McEvoy, A., & Welker, R. (2000). Antisocial behavior, academic failure, and school climate: A critical review. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(3), 130–140. Scholar
  117. McLoyd, V. C., Jayaratne, T. E., Ceballo, R., & Borquez, J. (1994). Unemployment and work interruption among African American single mothers: Effects on parenting and adolescent socioemotional functioning. Child Development, 65(2), 562–589. Scholar
  118. Milkie, M. A., Nomaguchi, K. M., & Denny, K. E. (2015). Does the amount of time mothers spend with children or adolescents matter? Journal of Marriage and Family, 77(2), 355–372. Scholar
  119. Musu-Gillette, L., Robinson, J., McFarland, J., KewalRamani, A., Zhang, A., & Wilkinson-Flicker, S. (2016). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groups 2016 (NCES 2016-007). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics Retrieved from Scholar
  120. Neppl, T. K., Jeon, S., Schofield, T. J., & Donnellan, M. B. (2015). The impact of economic pressure on parent positivity, parenting, and adolescent positivity into emerging adulthood. Family Relations, 64(1), 80–92. Scholar
  121. New York City Department of Education. (2017a). Framework for great schools. Retrieved from
  122. New York City Department of Education. (2017b). Pre-K for all program quality standards. Retrieved from
  123. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (1997). The effects of infant child care on infant-mother attachment security: Results of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Child Development, 68(5), 860–879. Scholar
  124. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2000). The relation of child care to cognitive and language development. Child Development, 71, 958–978. Scholar
  125. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2002). Early child care and children’s development prior to school entry: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. American Educational Research Journal, 39, 133–164. Scholar
  126. Noble, K. G., Duch, H., Darvique, M. E., Grundleger, A., Rodriguez, C., & Landers, C. (2012). “Getting Ready for School:” A preliminary evaluation of a parent-focused school-readiness program. Child Development Research, 2012, 1–14. Scholar
  127. Nord, C. W., Brimhall, D., & West, J. (1998). Dads’ involvement in their kids’ schools. The Education Digest, 63(7), 29–35.Google Scholar
  128. OECD (2012), Equity and quality in education: Supporting disadvantaged students and schools. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from
  129. Patall, E. A., Cooper, H., & Robinson, J. C. (2008). Parent involvement in homework: A research synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 1039–1101. Scholar
  130. Petterson, S. M., & Albers, A. B. (2001). Effects of poverty and maternal depression on early child development. Child Development, 72(6), 1794–1813. Scholar
  131. Phillips, D. A., & Shonkoff, J. P. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  132. Pinquart, M. (2016). Associations of parenting styles and dimensions with academic achievement in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 28(3), 475–493. Scholar
  133. Pomerantz, E. M., Moorman, E. A., & Litwack, S. D. (2007). The how, whom, and why of parents’ involvement in children’s academic lives: More is not always better. Review of Educational Research, 77(3), 373–410. Scholar
  134. Puff, J., & Renk, K. (2014). Relationships among parents’ economic stress, parenting, and young children’s behavior problems. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 45(6), 712–727. Scholar
  135. Pulcini, C. D., Zima, B. T., Kelleher, K. J., & Houtrow, A. J. (2017). Poverty and trends in three common chronic disorders. Pediatrics, 139(2), 1–10. Scholar
  136. Raver, C. (2003). Young children’s emotional development and school readiness. Social Policy Report, 16(3), 3–19.Google Scholar
  137. Ready, D. D. (2010). Socioeconomic disadvantage, school attendance, and early cognitive development: The differential effects of school exposure. Sociology of Education, 83(4), 271–286. Scholar
  138. Reese, E., & Cox, A. (1999). Quality of adult book reading affects children’s emergent literacy. Developmental Psychology, 35(1), 20–28. Scholar
  139. Reynolds, A. J., & Gill, S. (1994). The role of parental perspectives in the school adjustment of inner city black children. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23(6), 671–694. Scholar
  140. Rhoades, B. L., Warren, H. K., Domitrovich, C. E., & Greenberg, M. T. (2011). Examining the link between preschool social–emotional competence and first grade academic achievement: The role of attention skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(2), 182–191. Scholar
  141. Roksa, J., & Potter, D. (2011). Parenting and academic achievement intergenerational transmission of educational advantage. Sociology of Education, 84(4), 299–321. Scholar
  142. Rumbaut, R. G. (1995). The new Californians: Comparative research findings on the educational progress of immigrant children. In R. G. Rumbaut & W. A. Cornelius (Eds.), California’s immigrant children: Theory, research and implications for education (pp. 17–70). Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers.Google Scholar
  143. Ryan, R. M., Fauth, R. C., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2006). Childhood poverty: Implications for school readiness and early childhood education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  144. Saegert, S., & Winkel, G. H. (1990). Environmental psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 41(1), 441–477. Scholar
  145. Sanbonmatsu, L., Kling, J. R., Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2006). Neighborhoods and academic achievement results from the Moving to Opportunity experiment. Journal of Human Resources, 41(4), 649–691. Scholar
  146. Seginer, R. (2006). Parents’ educational involvement: A developmental ecology perspective. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6(1), 1–48. Scholar
  147. Serrano-Villar, M., Huang, K. Y., & Calzada, E. J. (2016). Social support, parenting, and social emotional development in young Mexican and Dominican American children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 48(4), 1–13. Scholar
  148. Sheldon, S. B. (2003). Linking school–family–community partnerships in urban elementary schools to student achievement on state tests. The Urban Review, 35(2), 149–165. Scholar
  149. Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  150. Smith, J. R., Brooks-Gunn, J., Kohen, D., & McCarton, C. (2001). Transitions on and off AFDC: Implications for parenting and children’s cognitive development. Child Development, 72(5), 1512–1533. Scholar
  151. Staff, J., Schulenberg, J. E., & Bachman, J. G. (2010). Adolescent work intensity, school performance and academic engagement. Sociology of Education, 83(3), 183–200. Scholar
  152. Suárez-Orozco, C., Gaytán, F. X., Bang, H. J., Pakes, J., O’Connor, E., & Rhodes, J. (2010). Academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant youth. Developmental Psychology, 46(3), 602. Scholar
  153. UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) & UNICEF. (2015). Fixing the broken promise of education for all: Findings from the global initiative on out-of-school children. Montreal: UIS Retrieved from Scholar
  154. UNICEF. (2016). The state of the world’s children 2016: A fair chance for every child. Retrieved from
  155. Ursache, A., Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). The promotion of self-regulation as a means of enhancing school readiness and early achievement in children at risk for school failure. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 122–128. Scholar
  156. Van Voorhis, F. L., Maier, M. F., Epstein, J. L., & Lloyd, C. M. (2013). The impact of family involvement on the education of children ages 3 to 8: A focus on literacy and math achievement outcomes and social-emotional skills. Retrieved from
  157. Varner, F., & Mandara, J. (2013). Discrimination concerns and expectations as explanations for gendered socialization in African American families. Child Development, 84(3), 875–890. Scholar
  158. Vernon-Feagans, L., Garrett-Peters, P., De Marco, A., & Bratsch-Hines, M. (2012). Children living in rural poverty: The role of chaos in early development. In V. Maholmes & R. King (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of poverty and child development (pp. 448–466). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  159. Wang, M. T., & Sheikh-Khalil, S. (2014). Does parental involvement matter for student achievement and mental health in high school? Child Development, 85(2), 610–625. Scholar
  160. Wilder, S. (2014). Effects of parental involvement on academic achievement: A meta-synthesis. Educational Review, 66(3), 377–397. Scholar
  161. Winsler, A., Hutchison, L. A., De Feyter, J. J., Manfra, L., Bleiker, C., Hartman, S. C., & Levitt, J. (2012). Child, family, and childcare predictors of delayed school entry and kindergarten retention among linguistically and ethnically diverse children. Developmental Psychology, 48(5), 1299. Scholar
  162. Wood, D., & Graham, S. (2010). Why race matters: Social context and achievement motivation in African American youth. In S. Karabenick & T. C. Urdan (Eds.), The decade ahead: Applications and contexts of motivation and achievement (pp. 175–209). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Yeung, W., Linver, M. R., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2002). How money matters for young children’s development: Parental investment and family processes. Child Development, 73, 1861–1879. Scholar
  164. Yoshikawa, H., Weiland, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Burchinal, M. R., Espinosa, L. M., Gormley, W. T., & Zaslow, M. J. (2013). Investing in our future: The evidence base on preschool education. Society for Research in Child Development and Foundation for Child Development. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurie M. Brotman
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. Gabriela Barajas-Gonzalez
    • 1
  • Spring Dawson-McClure
    • 1
  • Esther J. Calzada
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Early Childhood Health and Development (CEHD), Department of Population HealthNYU School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Steve Hicks School of Social WorkUniversity of TexasAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations