Latent Heat Loss of a Virtual Thermal Manikin for Evaluating the Thermal Performance of Bicycle Helmets

  • Shriram MukunthanEmail author
  • Jochen Vleugels
  • Toon Huysmans
  • Guido De Bruyne
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 780)


Thermal performance of three bicycle helmets for latent heat loss was evaluated through a virtual testing methodology using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The virtual thermal manikin was prescribed with a constant sweat rate of 2 g/h and a constant sweat film thickness of 0.3 mm. The simulations were carried out at 6 m/s until convergence was achieved. The results from steady state simulations show heat loss of 158 W from manikin without helmet and approximately 135 W with helmets. However, the thermal performance of helmets with a sweating manikin has been reduced from 89–93% to 84–87%. These results imply that evaporative/latent heat loss plays a significant role in thermal performance of helmets. Therefore, thermal performance tests for helmets should also include testing of helmets for evaporative heat loss.


Thermal manikin Evaporative heat transfer Convective heat transfer Cooling efficiency Turbulence models CFD Thermal performance 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shriram Mukunthan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jochen Vleugels
    • 1
  • Toon Huysmans
    • 2
    • 3
  • Guido De Bruyne
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Product Development, Faculty of Design SciencesUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Vision Lab, Department of PhysicsUniversity of Antwerp (CDE)AntwerpBelgium
  3. 3.Applied Ergonomics and Design Department of Industrial DesignDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Lazer Sport NVAntwerpBelgium

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