Influence of Indirect Vision and Virtual Reality Training Under Varying Manned/Unmanned Interfaces in a Complex Search-and-Shoot Simulation

  • Akash K. RaoEmail author
  • B. S. Pramod
  • Sushil Chandra
  • Varun Dutt
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 780)


In the real-world, manned and unmanned vehicles may be used for a number of applications. Visual technologies like indirect visual display (IVD) and virtual reality (VR) have been used to train operators in both manned and unmanned environments. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of manned and unmanned interfaces in IVD and VR display designs. Using an underwater search-and-shoot scenario, we developed two variations in display designs (IVD and VR) and two variations in type of interface-based training (manned and unmanned). A total of 60 subjects participated in the experiment, where 30 subjects were randomly assigned to simulations in IVD and the rest in VR. In both the simulations, 15 randomly selected participants executed the manned interface first and the remaining 15 executed the unmanned interface first. Results revealed that the subjects performed better in VR compared to IVD, and also performed better when they executed the unmanned interface first. We highlight the implications of our results for training personnel in scenarios involving manned and unmanned operations in IVD and VR interfaces.


Virtual reality Indirect visual displays Human factors Manned interface Unmanned interface NASA - TLX 



This research was supported by a grant from Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) titled “Development of a human performance modeling framework for visual cognitive enhancement in IVD, VR and AR paradigms” (IITM/DRDO-CARS/VD/110) to Varun Dutt.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akash K. Rao
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. S. Pramod
    • 2
  • Sushil Chandra
    • 3
  • Varun Dutt
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied Cognitive Science LaboratoryIndian Institute of Technology MandiMandiIndia
  2. 2.National Institute of Technology SurathkalSurathkalIndia
  3. 3.Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied SciencesDRDODelhiIndia

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