Factors Affecting Legibility and Readability of Philippine Metropolitan Bus Signage

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 796)


In the Philippines, hundreds of thousands of commuters ride the buses that traverse the Epifanio De Los Santos Avenue (EDSA) daily. There are various bus stops officially established along the route. However, an observable majority of the bus drivers do not comply with these stops due to several factors such as commuter demands, traffic conditions, and convenience. In lieu of this, they make use of destination signs to indicate where the bus will stop along the thoroughfare. The problem with these makeshift signs is that they do not have a standard format in terms of signage size, font, font size, and color. These destination signs often come in a variety of neon colors that are difficult to read. This study aims to improve the legibility and readability of the bus signage to enhance the conditions of the bus system by designing a standard signage for all buses in the metropolis. Eight combinations of three factors, namely font, case, and color combination were utilized to determine the appropriate attributes that form the signage. Each factor had two variations respectively. An experimental setup was conducted along three bus stops having a high volume of foot traffic along EDSA. The researchers were able to deduce that case and color combinations are significant factors with regard to legibility and readability of these bus signage. The results suggest that the commuters preferred uppercase letters and white text on a dark gray background.


Legibility Readability Bus signage Signage 



The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), especially Sir Aguinaldo from the Mandaluyong City division, without whom the completion of this study would not be possible.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EngineeringUniversity of Asia and the PacificPasigPhilippines

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