Advertisement

Remaking Jamaica: Tourism, Labour, and the Awakening Jamaica Exhibition

Chapter

Abstract

The chapter examines a selection of commissioned photographs that were intended to perpetuate colonial discourses and to continue the objectives of European colonial and imperial projects in the Caribbean during the nineteenth century. The positioning of black people as visual tropes and economic tools was integral to the reinvention of the region as a commercial and tourist paradise, a construction of blackness that was essential to the making of a white leisure culture in post-slavery Jamaica. The analysis of a selection of photographs commissioned for the 1891 Awakening Jamaica exhibition has been undertaken by drawing on Anibal Quijano’s (Cultural Studies, 21(2–3), 168–178, 2007) concept of the colonial matrix of power, within an interdisciplinary approach that combines semiotics with Edward Said’s and Michel Foucault’s approach to discourse. The critical discussion of the images attests to the power of the visual and its centrality in colonial discourses (Orientalism. Western conceptions of the orient. London: Penguin Books, Said, E., 1978). As an instrument of colonial knowledge production, the Awakening Jamaica exhibition demonstrates the reliance of elite white identities on representations of gendered racialised subjects that were constructed to produce leisured white identities and to serve the economic demands of the white colonial elite.

Keywords

Colonial Matrix Colonial Elite Commissioned Photographs Gikandi powerPower 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alexander, S. A. J. (2012). Embodied Subjects: Policing the Black Female Body. In I. Soto & V. S. Johnson (Eds.), Western Fictions, Black Realities. Michigan, MI: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Andreassen, R. (2015). Human Exhibitions: Race, Gender and Sexuality in Ethnic Displays. Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishers.Google Scholar
  3. Anim-Addo, J. (2007). Touching the Body. History, Language & African Caribbean Women’s Writing. London: Mango Publishing.Google Scholar
  4. Barker, C., & Galasiński, D. (2001). Cultural Studies and Discourse Analysis. A Dialogue on Language and Identity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Barringer, T. (2007a). Picturesque Prospects and the Labour of the Enslaved. In T. Barringer et al. (Eds.), Art and Emancipation in Jamaica. Isaac Mendes Belsario and His Worlds (pp. 41–63). New Haven/London: Yale Centre for British Art in association with Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barringer, T. (2007b). Emancipation and Its Aftermath, 1838–1865. In T. Barringer et al. (Eds.), Art and Emancipation in Jamaica. Isaac Mendes Belsario and His Worlds (pp. 503–541). New Haven/London: Yale Centre for British Art in association with Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Barringer, T. (2007c). Emancipation, Apprenticeship and the Plantation. In T. Barringer et al. (Eds.), Art and Emancipation in Jamaica. Isaac Mendes Belsario and His Worlds (pp. 363–393). New Haven/London: Yale Centre for British Art in association with Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barthes, R. (2013). Mythologies. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  9. Bhattacharyya, G., Gabriel, J., & Small, S. (2002). Race and Power. Global Racism in the Twenty-first Century. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Burnard, T. (2004). Mastery, Tyranny and Desire. Thomas Thistlewood and His Slaves in the Anglo-Jamaican World. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  11. Crary, J. (1990). Techniques of the Observer: On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge, MA: Mitt Press.Google Scholar
  12. Doy, G. (2000). Black Visual Culture. Modernity and Postmodernity. London: IB Tauris.Google Scholar
  13. Dyer, R. (1997). White. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Engles, T. (2006). Literature, Cinema and the Visual Arts. In T. Engles (Ed.), Towards a Bibliography of Whiteness Studies (pp. 27–64). Champaign: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
  15. Foucault, M. (1980). In C. Gordon (Ed.), Michel Foucault: Power/Knowledge Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977. London: Harvester Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  16. Foucault, M. (1995). Discipline and Punish. The Birth of the Prison (A. Sheridan, Trans.). New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  17. Fusco, C. (1998). The Other History of Intercultural Performance. In N. Mirzoeff (Ed.), The Visual Culture Reader (pp. 363–371). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Gikandi, S. (2011). Slavery and the Culture of Taste. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gould, S. J. (1982). The Hottentot Venus. Natural History, 91(10), 20–27.Google Scholar
  20. Green, C. (2007). Unspeakable Worlds and Muffled Voices: Thomas Thistlewood as Agent and Medium of Eighteenth Century Jamaican Society. In B. Meeks (Ed.), Culture, Politics, Race and Diaspora. The Thought of Stuart Hall. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers.Google Scholar
  21. Hall, C. (1992). White, Male and Middle Class: Explorations in Feminism and History. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hall, S. (Ed.). (1997). Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. Hall, C. (2014). Gendering Property, Racing Capital. History Workshop Journal, 78(1), 22–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hesse-Biber, S. N. (Ed.). (2012). The Handbook of Feminist Research. Theory and Praxis. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  25. Hobson, J. (2005). Venus in the Dark. Blackness and Beauty in Popular Culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Lidchi, H. (1997). The Poetics and the Politics of Exhibiting Other Cultures. In S. Hall (Ed.), Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (pp. 151–208). London: Sage. Google Scholar
  27. Making Jamaica: Photography from the 1890s. (2017, February 24–April 22). Rivington Place, London, UK. http://autograph-abp.co.uk/exhibitions/making-jamaica. Last accessed 23 Mar 2017.
  28. Maldonado-Torres, N. (2007). On the Coloniality of Being. Cultural Studies, 21(2–3), 240–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Martin, C. J., & Lee, A. (2007). Chronology. In T. Barringer, G. Forrester, & B. Martinez Ruiz (Eds.), Art and Emancipation in Jamaica. Isaac Mendes Belsario and His Worlds (pp. xviii–xvxix). New Haven/London: Yale Centre for British Art in association with Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  30. McClintock, A. (1997). Soap and Commodity Spectacle. In S. Hall (Ed.), Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (pp. 280–282). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Mignolo, W. D. (2007). Introduction. Cultural Studies, 21(2–3), 155–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Montgomery, P. (2011). An Image of Jamaica. Examining Photographs by Valentine & Sons at the World’s Columbian Exposition. New York: Archive Farms Inc, Shelter Island.Google Scholar
  33. Morrison, T. (1992). Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Pool, D. (1997). Vision, Race and Modernity: A Visual Economy of the Andean Image World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Poupeye, V. (1998). Caribbean Art. London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  36. Quijano, A. (2007). Coloniality and Modernity/Rationality. Cultural Studies, 21(2–3), 168–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rhys, J. (1968). Wide Sargasso Sea. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  38. Ritzer, G., & Liska, A. (1997). ‘McDisneyization’ and ‘Post-tourism’. Complementary Perspectives on Contemporary Tourism. In C. Rojek & J. Urry (Eds.), Touring Cultures. Transformations of Travel and Theory. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Rose, G. (2016). Visual Methodologies. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Ryan, J. R. (1997). Picturing Empire: Photography and the Visualisation of the British Empire. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  41. Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient. London: Penguin Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  42. Sheller, M. (2003). Consuming the Caribbean: From Arawaks to Zombies. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sherlock, P., & Bennett, H. (1998). The Story of the Jamaican People. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers.Google Scholar
  44. Smith, M. J. (2014). Liberty, Fraternity and Exile: Haiti and Jamaica After Emancipation. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  45. Soto, I., & Johnson, V. S. (Eds.). (2012). Western Fictions, Black Realities. Michigan, MI: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Spencer, S. (2011). Visual Research Methods in the Social Sciences. Awakening Visions. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Taylor, F. F. (1993). To Hell with Paradise: A History of the Jamaican Tourist Industry. Pittsburgh/London: University of Pittsburgh Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thompson, K. A. (2006). An Eye for the Tropics. Tourism, Photography and Framing the Caribbean Picturesque. London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Wilkes, K. (2016). Whiteness, Weddings and Tourism in the Caribbean: Paradise for Sale. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Birmingham City UniversityBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations