Advertisement

Toxicological Studies in Assessing Novel Food Safety

  • Daniele Pisanello
  • Giorgia Caruso
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science book series (BRIEFSMOLECULAR)

Abstract

Food industry innovations are recognised as fundamental for satisfying consumers’ expectations, for obeying regulations, reducing environmental impact, and improving nutritional quality. From the other viewpoint, innovation should always take into account the enhancement of a high food safety level for consumer protection. Novel foods pose a challenge to risk managers in the European Union and other countries. With exclusive relation to the European Union, these products should carefully fulfil the criteria laid down by the new Regulation (EU) No 2015/2283, demonstrating they do not pose safety risks. This Regulation increases the efficiency of the authorisation procedure, also assigning, upon request by the European Commission, the scientific assessment of novel foods to the European Food Safety Authority. This chapter concerns the state of the art of toxicological studies in assessing novel food safety, an extremely important pillar when speaking of food safety on the one hand, and the commercial introduction of new products on the other side. The description of the toxicological approach to the problem on different levels is given, depending on the particular analysis factor.

Keywords

Cloned animal Insects Nanofood Novel food Risk evaluation Toxicology Traditional food 

Abbreviations

EFSA ANS

EFSA panel on food additives and nutrient sources added to food

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority

EU

European Union

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FSAI

Food Safety Authority of Ireland

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are also grateful to Mrs. A. Smirnova for assistance with research, and for her keen eye in the evaluation and revision of this work.

References

  1. Akinnawo OO, Abatan MO, Ketiku AO (2002) Toxicological study on the edible larva of Cirina forda (Westwood). Afr J Biomed Res 5(1–2):43–46Google Scholar
  2. Beaudoin S, Vandelac L, Papilloud C (2013) Nanofoods: environmental, health, and socioeconomic risks or the Achilles’ Heel of nanotechnologies? In: Malsch I, Emond C (eds) Nanofoods, nanotechnology and human health. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 109–126.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b15341-10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chaudhry Q, Scotter M, Blackburn J, Ross B, Boxall A, Castle L, Aitken R, Watkins R (2008) Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector. Food Addit Contam 25, Part A 25, 3:241–258.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030701744538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen M, von Mikecz A (2005) Formation of nucleoplasmic protein aggregates impairs nuclear function in response to SiO2 nanoparticles. Exp Cell Res 305(1):51–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.12.021CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. EFSA (2012) Update on the state of play of animal health and welfare and environmental impact of animals derived from SCNT cloning and their offspring, and food safety of products obtained from those animals. EFSA J 10(7):2794.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. EFSA (2015) Risk profile related to production and consumption of insects as food and feed. EFSA J 13(10):4257.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. EFSA, ANS Panel (2012) Guidance for submission for food additive evaluations. EFSA J 10(7):2760.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elsaesser A, Howard CV (2012) Toxicology of nanoparticles. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64(2):129–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2011.09.001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. European Parliament and Council (1997) Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients. Off J Eur Comm L43:1–6Google Scholar
  10. European Parliament and Council (2003) Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 on genetically modified food and feed. Off J Eur Union L268:1–23Google Scholar
  11. European Parliament and Council (2008a) Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on food additives. Off J Eur Union L354:16–33Google Scholar
  12. European Parliament and Council (2008b) Regulation (EC) No 1334/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on flavourings and certain food ingredients with flavouring properties for use in and on foods and amending Council Regulation (EEC) No 1601/91, Regulations (EC) No 2232/96 and (EC) No 110/2008 and Directive 2000/13/EC. Off J Eur Union L354:34–50Google Scholar
  13. European Parliament and Council (2009) Directive 2009/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States on extraction solvents used in the production of foodstuffs and food ingredients (Recast). Off J Eur Union L3414:3–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2011.05.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. European Parliament and Council (2015) Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2015 on novel foods, amending regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1852/2001. Off J Eur Union L327:1–22Google Scholar
  15. FAO (2013) Edible insects. Future prospects for food and feed security. FAO Forestry Paper 171. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. Available http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3253e/i3253e00.htm. Accessed 01 Aug 2017
  16. FAO/WHO (2013) State of the art on the initiatives and activities relevant to risk assessment and risk management of nanotechnologies in the food and agriculture sectors: FAO/WHO technical paper report. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), Rome, p 48Google Scholar
  17. Frewer LJ, Bergmann K, Brennan M, Lion R, Meertens R, Rowe G, Siegrist M, Vereijken C (2011) Consumer response to novel agri-food technologies: implications for predicting consumer acceptance of emerging food technologies. Trends Food Sci Technol 22(8):442–456.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2011.05.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. FSAI (2008) The relevance for food safety of applications of nanotechnology in the food and feed industries. Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI), Dublin, p 82. Available https://www.fsai.ie/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=7858. Accessed 20 Feb 2018
  19. Huang Y, Chen S, Bing X, Gao C, Wang T, Yuan B (2011) Nanosilver migrated into food-simulating solutions from commercially available food fresh containers. Pack Technol Sci 24(5):291–297.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pts.938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ijabadeniyi (2012) Safety of nanofood: a review. Afr J Biotechnol 11, 87:15258–15263.  https://doi.org/10.5897/ajb11.1919
  21. Lee NJ, Yang BC, Jung YR, Lee JW, Im GS, Seong HH, Park JK, Kang JK, Hwang S (2011) In vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer cloned cattle meat. Food Chem Toxicol 49(9):2273–2278.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.06.026CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mukul D, Ansari KM, Anurag T, Dwivedi PD (2001) Need for safety of nanoparticles used in food industry. J Biomed Nanotechnol 7(1):13–14.  https://doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2011.1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nishida R (2002) Sequestration of defensive substances from plants by Lepidoptera. Annu Rev Entomol 47(1):57–92.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.47.091201.145121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Oberdörster G, Oberdörster E, Oberdörster J (2005) Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles. Environ Health Perspect 113(7):823–839.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7339CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Powell JJ, Faria N, Thomas-McKay E, Pele CL (2010) Origin and fate of dietary nanoparticles and microparticles in the gastrointestinal tract. J Autoimmun 34(3):J226–J233.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2009.11.006CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Srinroch C, Srisomsap C, Chokchaichamnankit D, Punyarit P, Phiriyangkul P (2015) Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens. Food Chem 184:160–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.094CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Van Huis A (2013) Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annu Rev Entomol 58(1):563–583.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153704CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Watanabe S (2011) Somatic cell cloned cattle and their progeny produced in Japan, a report for animal health and characteristics of animal products. Memories of NARO Inst Livestock Grassland Sci 12:1–44Google Scholar
  29. Yamaguchi M, Ito Y, Takahashi S (2007) Fourteen-week feeding test of meat and milk derived from cloned cattle in the rat. Theriogenology 67(1):152–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.09.010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Zagrobelny M, Dreon AL, Gomiero T, Marcazzan GL, Glaring MA, Moller BL, Paoletti MG (2009) Toxic moths: source of a truly safe delicacy. J Ethnobiol 29(1):64–76.  https://doi.org/10.2993/0278-0771-29.1.64CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniele Pisanello
    • 1
  • Giorgia Caruso
    • 2
  1. 1.Lex Alimentaria Studio Legale AssociatoMilanoItaly
  2. 2.Enbiotech S.r.l.PalermoItaly

Personalised recommendations