Efficient Routing in Geographic and Opportunistic Routing for Underwater WSNs
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are capable of providing facilities for the wide range of aquatic applications. However, due to the adverse environment, UWSNs face huge challenges and issues i.e., limited bandwidth, node mobility, higher propagation delay, high manufacturer and deployment costs etc. In this paper, we propose two techniques: the geographic and opportunistic routing via transmission range (T-GEDAR) and the geographic and opportunistic routing via the backward transmission (B-GEDAR). Firstly, in the absence of forwarder node, we increase the transmission range to determine the forwarder node. Because of this, we can send packets to the sink; Secondly, when the forwarder node is unavailable in adjustable transmission range. Then, the B-GEDAR is used for determining the forwarder node so that the packet delivery ratio (PDR) can be increased effectively. This is because, our simulation results perform better network performance in terms of an energy efficiency, PDR, and the fraction of void nodes.
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