Discrimination of Eye Blinks and Eye Movements as Features for Image Analysis of the Around Ocular Region for Use as an Input Interface

  • Shogo MatsunoEmail author
  • Masatoshi Tanaka
  • Keisuke Yoshida
  • Kota Akehi
  • Naoaki Itakura
  • Tota Mizuno
  • Kazuyuki Mito
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 773)


This paper examines an input method for ocular analysis that incorporates eye-motion and eye-blink features to enable an eye-controlled input interface that functions independent of gaze-position measurement. This was achieved by analyzing the visible light in images captured without using special equipment. We propose applying two methods. One method detects eye motions using optical flow. The other method classifies voluntary eye blinks. The experimental evaluations assessed both identification algorithms simultaneously. Both algorithms were also examined for applicability in an input interface. The results have been consolidated and evaluated. This paper concludes by considering of the future of this topic.


  1. 1.
    Bhaskar, T.N., Ranganath, F.T.K., Venkatesh, Y.V.: Blink detection and eye tracking for eye localization. In: IEEE Conference on region 10, TENCON, vol. 2, pp. 821–824 (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lalonde, M., Byrns, D., Gagnon, L., Teasdale, N., Laurendeau, D.: Real-time eye blink detection with GPU-based SIFT tracking. In: Fourth Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision, pp. 481–487 (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hori, J., Chiba, S.: Development of EOG-Based letter input interface on hierarchical screen keyboard considering the characteristics of eye movements. Far East J. Electron. Commun. 14(1), 53–69 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Okugawa, K., Nakanishi, M., Mitukura, Y., Takahashi, M.: Experimental verification for driving control of a powered wheelchair by voluntary eye blinking and with environment recognition. Trans. JSME 80(813), 1–15 (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kajiwara, Y., Nakamura, M., Murata, H., Kimura, H.: Human-computer interface controlled by eye movements and voluntary blinks. Trans. Jpn. Soc. Welf. Eng. 14(1), 22–29 (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kajiware, Y., Murata, H., Kimura, H., Abe, K.: Human-computer interface controlled by horizontal directional eye movements and voluintary blinks using AC EOG signals. Trans. IEEJ. C 132(4), 555–560 (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arai, K., Yajima, K.: Communication aid with human eyes only. Trans. IEEJ. C 128(11), 1679–1686 (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sasaki, M., Ito, S., Takeda, K., Okamoto, T., Rusydi, M.I.: Developing a two-link robot arm controller using voluntary blink. Jpn. AEM J. 22(4), 475–481 (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sato, H., Abe, K., Ohi, S., Ohyama, M.: A text input system based on information of voluntary blink and eye-gaze using an image analysis. Trans. IEEJ. C 137(4), 584–594 (2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Matsuno, S., Mizuno, T., Itakura, N.: Method for measuring intentional eye blinks by focusing on momentary movement around the eyes. In: RISP International Workshop on Nonlinear Circuits, Communications and Signal Processing 2016 (NCSP), pp. 137–140, March 2016Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matsuno, S., Ohyama, M., Abe, K., Ohi, S., Itakura, N.: Differentiating conscious and unconscious eyeblinks for development of eyeblink computer input system. In: Usability- and Accessibility-Focused Requirements Engineering. LNCS, vol. 9312, pp. 160–174. Springer (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Matsuno, S., Ito, Y., Akehi, K., Itakura, N., Mizuno, T., Mito, K.: A multiple-choice input interface using slanting Eye Glance. Trans. IEEJ. C 137(4), 621–627 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Matsuno, S., Ito, Y., Itakura, N., Mizuno, T., Mito, K.: Study of an intention communication assisting system using eye movement. In: 15th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs (ICCHP), pp. 495–502, July 2016Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sato, H., Abe, K., Ohi, S., Ohyama, M.: Automatic classification between involuntary and two types of voluntary blinks based on an image analysis. In: HCII (2), pp. 140–149 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen, B.C., Wu, P.C., Chien, S.Y.: Real-time eye localization, blink detection, and gaze estimation system without infrared illumination. In: IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), pp. 715–719 (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shogo Matsuno
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masatoshi Tanaka
    • 2
  • Keisuke Yoshida
    • 2
  • Kota Akehi
    • 3
  • Naoaki Itakura
    • 3
  • Tota Mizuno
    • 3
  • Kazuyuki Mito
    • 3
  1. 1.Hotto Link Inc.TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Tokyo Denki UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.The University of Electro-CommunicationsChofuJapan

Personalised recommendations