Advertisement

Effects of Innovation and Domestic Market Factors on OECD Countries’ Exports of Wind Power Technologies

  • Joachim SchleichEmail author
  • Rainer Walz
Chapter
Part of the Sustainability and Innovation book series (SUSTAINABILITY)

Abstract

This chapter explores the effects of policies and other factors driving innovation in wind-power technologies in twelve OECD countries over more than two decades. Patent counts are used as an indicator for innovation. The factors considered are generally derived from the systems of innovation literature. Count data econometric model were used for the estimations. The suggest that patenting in wind-power technology is positively related to public R&D in wind power (reflecting supply-side policy), the stock of wind capacity (reflecting learning effects), the number of patents per capita (reflecting a country’s innovative capacity), and the share of Green party voters (reflecting the legitimacy of the technology). In particular, the presence of production or capacity targets for wind power or renewable energy sources and a stable policy environment (reflecting policy process) appear to be favourable for patenting wind-power technologies. These results are robust to various model specifications, distributional assumptions, and alternative classifications of windpower technologies in the patent search.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Rouven Emmerich for his thorough research assistance, Frank Marscheider-Weidemann for his help in retrieving patent data, and Mario Ragwitz for sharing his insights on renewable energy policies. Special thanks go to Gillian Bowman-Köhler for proofreading our paper.

References

  1. Angrist, J., & Pischke, J.-S. (2009). Mostly harmless econometrics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Beise, M. (2004). Lead markets: Country-specific drivers of the global diffusion of innovations. Research Policy, 33, 997–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beise, M., & Cleff, T. (2004). Assessing the lead market potential of countries for innovation projects. Journal of International Management, 10(4), 453–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beise, M., & Rennings, K. (2005). Lead markets for environmental innovations: A framework for innovation and environmental economics. Ecological Economics, 52, 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergek, A., & Berggren, C. (2014). The impact of environmental policy instruments on innovation: A review of energy and automotive industry studies. Ecological Economics, 106, 112–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergek, A., Hekkert, M., & Jacobsson, S. (2008). Functions in innovation systems: A framework for analysing energy system dynamics and identifying system building activities by entrepreneurs and policy makers. In T. Foxon, J. Köhler, & C. Oughton (Eds.), Innovations in low-carbon economy (pp. 79–111). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, W., Nelson, R., & Walsh, J. (2000). Protecting their intellectual assets: Appropriability conditions and why U.S. manufacturing firms patent, or not. NBER working paper no. 7552. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  8. Diederichs, H. (2016). Environmental policy and renewable energy equipment exports. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. European Commission. (2014). Guidelines on state aid for environmental protection and energy 2014–2020, 2014/C 200/01. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52014XC0628%2801%29&from=EN. Accessed 6 Jun 2016.
  10. Fagerberg, J. (1987). A technology gap approach to why growth rates differ. Research Policy, 16(2–4), 87–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fagerberg, J. (1992). The home market hypothesis re-examined: The impact of domestic-user producer interaction in exports. In B.-Å. Lundvall (Ed.), National systems of innovation: Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. London: Pinter.Google Scholar
  12. Freeman, C. (1987). Technology and economic performance: Lessons from Japan. London: Pinter.Google Scholar
  13. Freeman, C. (1995). The “national system of innovation” in historical perspective. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19(1), 5–24.Google Scholar
  14. Frietsch, R., & Schmoch, U. (2010). Transnational patents and international markets. Scientometrics, 82, 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Greenhalgh, C. (1990). Innovation and trade performance in the UK. Economic Journal, 100(400), 105–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Griliches, Z. (1990). Patent statistics as economic indicators: A survey. Journal of Economic Literature, 28, 1661–1707.Google Scholar
  17. Groba, F. (2014). Determinants of trade with solar energy technology components – Evidence on the porter hypothesis? Applied Economics, 46, 503–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Haas, R., Eichhammer, W., Huber, C., Langniss, O., Lorenzoni, A., & Madlener, R. (2004). How to promote renewable energy systems successfully and effectively. Energy Policy, 32(6), 833–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hall, B., Helmers, C., Rogers, M., & Vania, S. (2014). The choice between formal and informal intellectual property: A review. Journal of Economic Literature, 52(2), 375–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harhoff, D., Narin, F., & Vopel, K. (1999). Citation frequency and the value of patented inventions. Review of Economics and Statistics, 81(3), 511–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Held, A., Ragwitz, M., Resch, G., Genoese, F., Liebmann, L., Pató, Z., & Szabo, L. (2015). Implementing the EU 2030 climate and energy framework – A closer look at renewables and opportunities for an Energy Union. Issue paper, towards 2030 project. Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels.Google Scholar
  22. Hirsch, S., & Bijaoui, I. (1985). R&D intensity and export performance: A micro view. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 121(2), 238–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Horbach, J., Rammer, C., & Rennings, K. (2012). Determinants of eco-innovations by type of environmental impact – The role of regulatory push/pull, technology push and market pull. Ecological Economics, 78, 112–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. International Energy Agency, IEA. (2014). Energy technology perspectives 2014. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jänicke, M., & Lindemann, S. (2010). Governing environmental innovations. Environmental Politics, 19(1), 127–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kleßmann, C., Held, A., Rathmann, M., de Jager, D., Gazzo, A., Resch, G., Busch, S., & Ragwitz, M. (2013). Policy options for reducing the costs of reaching the European renewables target. Renewable Energy, 57, 390–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krugman, P. R. (1979). A model of innovation, technology transfer, and the world distribution of income. Journal of Political Economy, 87(2), 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Levinson, A. (2009). Technology, international trade, and pollution from US manufacturing. American Economic Review, 99(5), 2177–2192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lundvall, B. (1985). Product innovation and user-producer interaction. Industrial development research series 31. Aalborg University Press, Aalborg.Google Scholar
  30. Lundvall, B. (Ed.). (1992). National systems of innovation: Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. London: Pinter.Google Scholar
  31. Lundvall, B. (2007). National innovation systems – Analytical concepts and development tool. Industry and Innovation, 14, 95–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Malerba, F. (2002). Sectoral systems of innovation and production. Research Policy, 31, 247–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Malerba, F. (2005). Sectoral systems – How and why innovation differs across sectors. In J. Fagerberg, D. C. Mowery, & R. R. Nelson (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of innovation (pp. 380–406). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Meyer-Krahmer, F. (2004). Vorreiter-Märkte und Innovation. In F.-W. Steinmeier & M. Machnig (Eds.), Made in Deutschland 21 (pp. 95–110). Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe.Google Scholar
  35. Nelson, R. R. (Ed.). (1993). National innovation systems: A comparative analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Polzin, F., Migendt, M., Täube, F., & von Flotow, P. (2015). Public policy influence on renewable energy investments – A panel data study across OECD countries. Energy Policy, 80, 98–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rennings, K. (2000). Redefining innovation – Eco-innovation research and the contribution from ecological economics. Ecological Economics, 32, 319–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rennings, K., & Smidt, W. (2010). A lead market approach towards the emergence and diffusion of coal-fired power plant technology. Economia Politica, 27(2), 303–328.Google Scholar
  39. Rogge, K., & Schleich, J. (2018). Do policy mix characteristics matter for low-carbon innovation? A survey-based exploration for renewable power generation technologies. Research Policy (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  40. Roper, S., & Love, J. H. (2002). Innovation and export performance: Evidence from the UK and German manufacturing plants. Research Policy, 31(7), 1087–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sawhney, A., & Kahn, M. E. (2012). Understanding cross-national trends in high-tech renewable power equipment exports to the United States. Energy Policy, 46, 308–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schleich, J., Walz, R., & Ragwitz, M. (2017). Effects of policies on patenting in wind-power technologies. Energy Policy, 108, 684–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schmidt, T., Schneider, M., Rogge, K., Schuetz, M., & Hoffmann, V. (2012). The effects of climate policy on the rate and direction of innovation: A survey of the EU ETS and the electricity sector. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 2, 23–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Soete, L. G. (1987). The impact of technological innovation on international trade patterns: The evidence reconsidered. Research Policy, 16(2–4), 101–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vernon, R. (1966). International investment and international trade in the product cycle. Quarterly Review of Economics, 88, 190–207.Google Scholar
  46. Wakelin, K. (1998). The role of innovation in bilateral OECD trade performance. Applied Economics, 30(10), 1135–1346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Walz, R. (2006). Impact of strategies to increase RES in Europe on employment and competitiveness. Energy and Environment, 17(6), 951–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Walz, R. (2007). The role of regulation for sustainable infrastructure innovations: The case of wind energy. International Journal of Public Policy, 2(1/2), 57–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Walz, R., & Köhler, J. (2014). Using lead market factors to assess the potential for a sustainability transition. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 10, 20–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wang, C., Wei, Y., & Liu, X. (2010). Determinants of bilateral trade flows in OECD countries: Evidence from gravity panel data models. World Economics, 33(7), 894–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grenoble Ecole de Management, Univ Grenoble Alpes ComUEGrenobleFrance
  2. 2.Fraunhofer Institute of Systems and Innovation ResearchKarlsruheGermany
  3. 3.Competence Center Sustainability & Infrastructure SystemsFraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISIKarlsruheGermany

Personalised recommendations