Microhardness Profile and Shear Tensile Test of FSSWelds AA1060 to C11000 (Case Study)

  • Mukuna Patrick MubiayiEmail author
  • Esther Titilayo Akinlabi
  • Mamookho Elizabeth Makhatha
Part of the Structural Integrity book series (STIN, volume 6)


Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a solid state welding process; and it is used to overcome the difficulties of joining aluminium and copper alloys. Dissimilar joining of AA1060 and C11000 using friction stir welding was carried out. The microhardness profile analyses were carried out and the probability distribution function (PDF) of the measured microhardness values was determined. Additionally, shear tensile tests were conducted. High microhardness values were obtained in the region close to the keyhole of most of the samples, which could be linked to the presence of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone of the spot welds. For the shear tensile test, only a nugget pull out failure mode took place in all the produced spot welds. The PDF revealed that the process parameters and the tool geometries significantly have an effect on the distribution of the microhardness values.


Aluminium Copper FSSW Microhardness Shear tensile Probability density function 


  1. 1.
    Badarinarayan H (2009) Fundamentals of friction stir spot welding. Missouri University of Science and TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heideman R, Johnson C, Kou S (2010) Metallurgical analysis of Al/Cu friction stir spot welding. Sci Technol Weld Join 15(7):597–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shiraly M, Shamanian M, Toroghinejad MR, Ahmadi Jazani M (2014) Effect of tool rotation rate on microstructure and mechanical behavior of friction stir spot-welded Al/Cu composite. J Mater Eng Perform 23(2):413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Manickam S, Balasubramanian V (2015) Maximizing strength of friction stir spot welded bimetallic joints of AA6061 aluminum alloy and copper alloy by response surface methodology. Int J Mech Eng 3(12):16–26Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Siddharth S, Senthilkumar T (2016) Optimization of friction stir spot welding process parameters of dissimilar Al 5083 and C 10100 joints using response surface methodology. Russian J Non-Ferrous Metals 57(5):456–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Garg A, Bhattacharya A (2017) Strength and failure analysis of similar and dissimilar friction stir spot welds: influence of different tools and pin geometries. Mater Des 127:272–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Siddharth S, Senthilkumar T (2017) Study of tool penetration behavior in dissimilar Al5083/C10100 friction stir spot welds. Procedia Eng 173:1439–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Akinlabi ET, Akinlabi SA (2012) Friction stir welding of dissimilar materials–statistical analysis of the weld data. In: Proceedings of the international multiconference of engineers and computer scientists, pp 1368–1373Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ASTM Standard E384–11ε1 (2012) Standard test method for knoop and Vickers hardness of materials. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012.
  10. 10.
    Galvao I, Leal RM, Rodrigues DM, Loureiro A (2010) Dissimilar welding of very thin aluminium and copper plates. In: Proceedings, 8th international friction stir welding symposium, 18–20 May 2010, Timmendorfer Strand, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lomholt TC (2011) Microstructure evolution during friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel. PhD thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Mechanical EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pathak N, Bandyopadhyay K, Sarangi M, Panda SK (2013) Microstructure and mechanical performance of friction stir spot-welded aluminum-5754 sheets. J Mater Eng Perform 22(1):131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schneider JM, Bigerelle M, Iost A (1999) Statistical analysis of the Vickers hardness. Mater Sci Eng A 262:256–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yurkov AL, Jhuravleva NV, Lukin ES (1994) Kinetic microhardness measurements of sialon-based ceramics. J Mater Sci 29:6551 6560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yanchev IY, Trifonova EP (1995) Analysis of microhardness data in Tlx lnl-x Se. J Mater Sci 30:5576–5580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hassan AM, Almomani M, Qasim T, Ghaithan A (2012) Statistical analysis of some mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium matrix composite. Int J Exp Des Process Optim 3(1):91–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin PC, Lin SH, Pan J (2004) Modeling of plastic deformation and failure near spot welds in lap shear specimens. SAE Technical paper No 2004–01-0817, Society of Automotive Engineering, Warrendale, PAGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yu L, Nakata K, Liao J (2009) Microstructural modification and mechanical property improvement in friction stir zone of thixo-molded AE42 Mg alloy. J Alloys Compd 480(2):340–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tan CW, Jiang ZG, Li LQ, Chen YB, Chen XY (2013) Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of dissimilar Al–Cu joints produced by friction stir welding. Mater Des 51:466–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mukuna Patrick Mubiayi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Esther Titilayo Akinlabi
    • 1
  • Mamookho Elizabeth Makhatha
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering ScienceUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of MetallurgyUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations