Transitioning: 9.5–14.5 Years of Age

Part of the Bioarchaeology and Social Theory book series (BST)


This chapter examines the last age cohort, those that transition from childhood into adulthood. It focuses on the fact that some of these individuals were likely living as adults while others were likely still with their families. Changing skeletal markers of behavior, like tobacco staining, point us to these transitions. Historical documents too show that those in this age range may have been working and having families of their own while others were still in school and acting very much like they were still in a stage of childhood. This chapter draws on a range of historical and a skeletal sources to argue that there is no single end to childhood but rather a variety of end points for different individuals. Brief biographies and osteobiographies highlight these trends.


Tobacco Apprentice Dentition Immigration Craniotomy 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anthropology DepartmentFlorida Atlantic UniversityBoca RatonUSA

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