Restless Youth: Older Children, 4.5–9.5 Years of Age

Part of the Bioarchaeology and Social Theory book series (BST)


This chapter explores the childhood experiences of older children. In particular, this chapter focuses on how children’s experiences diversified as they grew older. This includes continuing education for some children but also early entry into the labor force for others. Such wider experiences lend themselves to broader social interactions and exposures. Yet the data also clearly indicate how these children were still connected to their families. This chapter examines historical documentation and skeletal data to shed light on experiences for this age cohort. Changing trends in health and behavior are tracked in both the skeletal and historical data. This chapter uses brief biographies and osteobiographies to illustrate these concepts.


Older children Linear enamel hypoplasia Congenital syphilis Labor Education 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anthropology DepartmentFlorida Atlantic UniversityBoca RatonUSA

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