Exposures: Toddlers and Younger Children, 1.5–4.5 Years of Age

Part of the Bioarchaeology and Social Theory book series (BST)


This chapter explores the experiences of childhood for toddlers and younger children through historical records and skeletal evidence. In particular, this chapter focuses on expanding structures of social interaction, including education opportunities at the church and elsewhere in the city. This chapter also begins to track how changing experiences influence changing skeletal markers of health and activity. Skeletal trauma is introduced. Changes in dental health and evidence for scurvy are discussed. Examples are drawn from published accounts by children in this age cohort. In order to illustrate experience, this chapter also provides brief biographies from the death records associated with the church and osteobiographies from the skeletal data.


Education Toddlers Younger children Habitus Agency 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anthropology DepartmentFlorida Atlantic UniversityBoca RatonUSA

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