Sink Nodes Deployment Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Geometrical Features

  • Koichi AsakuraEmail author
  • Kengo Osuka
  • Toyohide Watanabe
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 98)


This paper proposes an algorithm for deploying sink nodes in outdoor wireless sensor networks focusing on smart meters for electricity or gas in a residential area. In this situation, the location of nodes is pre-determined and the nodes cannot be deployed freely. This algorithm calculates the number of required sink nodes and selects the appropriate nodes in order to decrease operational costs of the wireless sensor networks. Positional information on meters in a real residential area was used for experiments. Our algorithm calculated an optimal number of sink nodes.


Node deployment Wireless sensor networks Sink nodes IoT 


  1. 1.
    Akyildiz, I., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, Y., Cayirci, E.: Wireless sensor networks: a survey. Comput. Netw. 38(4), 393–422 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akyildiz, I.F., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, Y., Cayirci, E.: A survey on sensor networks. IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(8), 102–114 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Fuqaha, A., Guizani, M., Mohammadi, M., Aledhari, M., Ayyash, M.: Internet of Things: a survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17(4), 2347–2376 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baggio, A.: Wireless sensor networks in precision agriculture. In: ACM Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks (REALWSN 2005), pp. 1567–1576 (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Depuru, S.S.S.R., Wang, L., Devabhaktuni, V.: Smart meters for power grid: challenges, issues, advantages and status. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2736–2742 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    International Telecommunication Union: Propagation data and prediction methods for the planning of short-range outdoor radio-communication systems and radio local area networks in the frequency range 300 MHz to 100 GHz, ITU-R Recommendation P.1411-9 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kim, H., Seok, Y., Choi, N., Choi, Y., Kwon, T.: Optimal multi-sink positioning and energy-efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. In: International Conference on Information Networking, pp. 264–274 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Oyman, E.I., Ersoy, C.: Multiple sink network design problem in large scale wireless sensor networks. In: IEEE International Conference on Communication, vol. 6, pp. 3663–3667 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Poe, W.Y., Schmitt, J.B.: Node deployment in large wireless sensor networks: coverage, energy consumption, and worst-case delay. In: Asian Internet Engineering Conference, pp. 77–84 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wark, T., Corke, P., Sikka, P., Klingbeil, L., Guo, Y., Crossman, C., Valencia, P., Swain, D., Bishop-Hurley, G.: Transforming agriculture through pervasive wireless sensor networks. IEEE Pervasive Comput. 6(2), 50–57 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yick, J., Mukherjee, B., Ghosal, D.: Wireless sensor network survey. Comput. Netw. 52(12), 2292–2330 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Younis, O., Krunz, M., Ramasubramanian, S.: Node clustering in wireless sensor networks: recent developments and deployment challenges. IEEE Netw. 20(3), 20–25 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koichi Asakura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kengo Osuka
    • 1
  • Toyohide Watanabe
    • 2
  1. 1.Daido UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Nagoya Industrial Science Research InstituteNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations