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Atoms and Energy

Chapter
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Part of the Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics book series (ULNP)

Abstract

In this chapter, we look at the energy of electrons in an atom and determine how the quantum state of the atom changes over time. This leads us to introduce the energy operator, or Hamiltonian, and the Schrödinger equation that governs the behaviour of quantum systems. We show how light can interact with an atom, and as a demonstration of the quantum theory developed so far we explain how atomic clocks work.

Keywords

energyEnergy frequencyFrequency phasePhase laserLaser photonsPhotons 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

460544_1_En_4_MOESM1_ESM.zip (1012 kb)
Supplementary material 1: Spectral lines (zip 1011 KB)
460544_1_En_4_MOESM2_ESM.zip (1016 kb)
Supplementary material 2: The origin of spectral lines due to energy levels of the hydrogen atom (zip 1015 KB)
460544_1_En_4_MOESM3_ESM.zip (186 kb)
Supplementary material 3: Time evolution as a rotation of the state vector in the Bloch sphere (zip 186 KB)
460544_1_En_4_MOESM4_ESM.zip (2 mb)
Supplementary material 4: Working principle of the atomic clock (zip 2039 KB)

References

  1. N. Bohr, On the constitution of atoms and molecules. Philos. Mag. 26, 1 (1913)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. A. Einstein, Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt, Annalen der Physik 17, 132 (1905)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. A. Einstein, Strahlungs-emission und -absorption nach der Quantentheorie. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft 18, 318 (1916)ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. L. Essen, J.V.L. Parry, An atomic standard of frequency and time interval: a caesium resonator. Nature 176, 280 (1955)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. E. Schrödinger, An undulatory theory of the mechanics of atoms and molecules. Phys. Rev. 28, 1049 (1926)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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