• Gail J. Buttorff


The concluding chapter summarizes the main theoretical and empirical findings of the book, namely, the importance of accounting for the broader institutional and contextual factors that drive opposition electoral strategies. In this chapter, Buttorff also explores the policy implications for the international community and other actors concerned with reducing contentious elections and improving electoral integrity in the Arab world and beyond. The author concludes the chapter with a discussion of the implications of her research for studying opposition politics in the region generally and highlights key insights from this study that can inform how we interpret contentious events like the Arab Spring.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gail J. Buttorff
    • 1
  1. 1.Hobby School of Public AffairsUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA

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