Mushroom Biomass and Spent Mushroom Substrate As Adsorbent to Remove Pollutants

Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 19)


The edible and non-edible varieties of mushroom can be used as a green adsorbent and can be used in modified and natural form for the adsorption of dyes, pollutants and heavy metals. However, the use of edible mushroom varieties in the adsorption of pollutants is not judicious because edible mushrooms have good nutritive and medicinal properties and can be used for consumption. Recent research is thus focused on the utilization of spent mushrooms. Spent mushroom substrate, generated as waste by mushroom industries after the harvesting of mushroom, and hence, is the source of immobilized mushroom mycelium. The species of mushroom Agaricus, Pleurotus, Lentinus, Calocybe are efficient adsorbents with 70–90% removal of pollutants in laboratory conditions. Spent mushroom substrates can also remove pollutants such as dyes, heavy metals, pesticides and fungicides in laboratory conditions with comparable efficiency as mushroom. Chemisorption and physisorption processes are involved in the adsorption. The data of adsorption are well fitted to Langmuir isotherm, revealing the involvement of monolayer adsorption irrespective of the use of mushroom fruit bodies or spent mushroom substrate. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analysis reveal the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino group in the adsorption of pollutants, dyes and heavy metals.


Biosorption Pollutants Biomass Mushroom Pollutant BET SEM 


  1. Abdel-Shafy HI, Mansourb MSM (2016) A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egypt J Pet 25:107–123. Scholar
  2. Abdul-Talib S, Tay CC, Abdullah-Suhaimi A, Liew HH (2013) Fungal Pleurotus ostreatus Biosorbent for cadmium (II) removal in industrial wastewater. J Life Sci Technol 1:65–68. Scholar
  3. Ahlawat OP, Gupta P, Kumar S, Sharma DK, Ahlawat K (2010) Bioremediation of fungicides by spent mushroom substrate and its associated microflora. Indian J Microbiol 50:390–395. Scholar
  4. Álvarez-Martín A, Sánchez-Martín MJ, Pose-Juan E, Rodríguez-Cruz MS (2016a) Effect of different rates of spent mushroom substrate on the dissipation and bioavailability of cymoxanil and tebuconazole in an agricultural soil. Sci Total Environ 550:495–503. Scholar
  5. Álvarez-Martín A, Rodríguez-Cruz MS, Andrades MS, Sánchez-Martín MJ (2016b) Application of a biosorbent to soil: a potential method for controlling water pollution by pesticides. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23:9192–9203. Scholar
  6. Ayangbenro AS, Babalola OO (2017) A new strategy for heavy metal polluted environments: a review of microbial biosorbents. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14(1):94. Scholar
  7. Bishnoi NR, Kumar R, Kumar S, Rani S (2007) Biosorption of Cr(III) from aqueous solution using algal biomass Spirogyra spp. J Hazard Mater 135:142–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bressa G, Cima L, Costa P (1988) Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 16:85–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen Z, Deng H, Chen C, Yang Y, Xu H (2014) Biosorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions by Pleurotus ostreatus using Taguchi method. J Environ Health Sci Eng 12:63. Scholar
  10. Chen G, Peng C, Fang J, Dong YY, Zhu X, Cai H (2016) Biosorption of fluoride from drinking water using spent mushroom compost biochar coated with aluminum hydroxide. Desalin Water Treat 57:12385–12395. Scholar
  11. Damodaran D, Raj Mohan B, Shetty VK (2013) The uptake mechanism of Cd(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) by mycelia and fruiting bodies of Galerina vittiformis. Biomed Res Int 2013:149120. Scholar
  12. Damodaran D, Vidya Shetty K, Raj Mohan B (2014) Uptake of certain heavy metals from contaminated soil by mushroom-Galerina vittiformis. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 104:414–422. Scholar
  13. Ding R, Gong K (2013) Super-absorbent resin preparation utilizing spent mushroom substrate. J Appl Polym Sci.
  14. Dursun AY (2006) Acomparative study on determination of the equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of biosorption of copper(II) and lead(II) ions onto pretreated Aspergillus niger. Biochem Eng J 28:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Emuh FN (2010) Mushroom as a purifier of crude oil polluted soil. Int J Sci Nat 1(2):127–132Google Scholar
  16. Falandysz J, Danisiewicz D (1995) Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of silver in wild Agaricus campestris. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 55:122–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Falandysz J, Bona H, Danisiewicz D (1994) Silver uptake by Agaricus bisporus from an artificially enriched substrate. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 199:225–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Falandysz J, Danisiewicz D, Galecka K (1995) Mercury in mushrooms and underlying soil in the city of Gdansk and in the adjacent area. Bromatol Chem Toksykol 28:155–159Google Scholar
  19. Fidanza MA, Sanford DL, Beyer DM, Aurentz DJ (2010) Analysis of fresh mushroom compost. Hortitechnology 20:449–453Google Scholar
  20. Foluke A, Olutayo A, Olufemi A (2014) Assessing spent mushroom substrate as a replacement to wheat bran in the diet of broilers. Am Int J Contemp Res 4:178–183Google Scholar
  21. Fourest E, Canal C, Roux JC (1994) Improvement of heavy metal biosorption by mycelial dead biomasses (Rhizopus arrhizus, Mucor miehei and Penicillium chrysogenum): pH control and cationic activation. FEMS Microbiol Rev 14:325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fričová O, Koval’aková M (2013) Solid-State 13C CP MAS NMR Spectroscopy as a tool for detection of (1→3, 1→6)-β-D-glucan in products prepared from Pleurotus ostreatus. ISRN Anal Chem. Article ID 248164.
  23. Gadd GM (2009) Biosorption: critical review of scientific rationale, environmental importance and significance for pollution treatment. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84:13–28. Scholar
  24. García-Delgado C, Jiménez-Ayuso N, Frutos I, Gárate A, Eymar E (2013) Cadmium and lead bioavailability and their effects on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation by spent mushroom substrate. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:8690–8699. Scholar
  25. García-Delgado C, D’Annibale A, Pesciaroli L, Yunta F, Crognale S, Petruccioli M, Eymar E (2015) Implications of polluted soil biostimulation and bioaugmentation with spent mushroom substrate (Agaricus bisporus) on the microbial community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation. Sci Total Environ 508:20–28. Scholar
  26. Gill P (2014) Spill cleanup material and pet litter, and methods of making and using same US 8739734 B2. Patent US8739734 B2Google Scholar
  27. Herrero-Hernández E, Andrades MS, Marín-Benito JM, Sánchez-Martín MJ, Rodríguez-Cruz MS (2011) Field-scale dissipation of tebuconazole in a vineyard soil amended with spent mushroom substrate and its potential environmental impact. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:1480–1488. Scholar
  28. Herrero-Hernández E, Marín-Benito JM, Andrades MS, Sánchez-Martín MJ, Rodríguez-Cruz MS (2015) Field versus laboratory experiments to evaluate the fate of azoxystrobin in an amended vineyard soil. J Environ Manag 163:78–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Huang H, Cheng G, Chen L, Zhu X, Xu H (2009) Lead (II) removal from aqueous solution by spent Agaricus bisporus: determination of optimum process condition using Taguchi method. Water Air Soil Pollut 203:53–63. Scholar
  30. Huo CL, Shang YY, Zheng JJ, He RX, He XS, Zhu LM (2011) 2011 International Symposium on Water Resource and Environmental Protection (ISWREP) 3:2317–2320Google Scholar
  31. Igwe JC, Abia AA (2006) A bioseparation process for removing heavy metals from waste water using biosorbents. Afr J Biotechnol 5:1167–1179. Scholar
  32. Iqbal M, Edyvean RG (2005) Loofa sponge immobilized fungal biosorbent: a robust system for cadmium and other dissolved metal removal from aqueous solution. Chemosphere 61:510–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jarzynska G, Falandysz J (2011) The determination of mercury in mushrooms by CV-AAS and ICP-AES techniques. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 46:569–573. Scholar
  34. Javanbakht V, Alavi SA, Zilouei H (2014) Mechanispent mushroom substrate of heavy metal removal using microorganispent mushroom substrate as biosorbent. Water Sci Technol 69:1775–1787. Scholar
  35. Jibran AK, Milsee Mol JP (2011) Pleurotus sajor-caju Protein: a potential biosorptive agent. Adv Bio Tech 11:25–27Google Scholar
  36. Kamarudzaman AN, Tay CC, Jalil MFA, Abdul-Talib S (2013) Biosorption of iron (III) from aqueous solution using Pleurotus ostreatus spent mushroom compost as biosorbent. Adv Mater Res 781-784:636–642. Scholar
  37. Kamarudzaman AN, Tay CC, Amnorzahira A, Liew HH, Abdul-Talib S (2014a) Characterization of Pleurotus spent mushroom compost as a potential biosorbent for Fe(III) ions removal. Adv Environ Biol 8:1–6Google Scholar
  38. Kamarudzaman AN, Tay CC, Amnorzahira A, Liew HH, Abdul-Talib S (2014b) Study of Fe(II) biosorption using pleurotus spent mushroom compost in a fixed-bed column. In Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering I (vol 664, pp 392–396). (Appl Mechanics Mater; vol 664). Trans Tech Publications Ltd. Scholar
  39. Kamarudzaman AN, Tay CC, Amir A, Abdul-Talib S (2015) Mn(II) ions biosorption from aqueous solution using Pleurotus spent mushroom compost under batch experiment. Appl Mech Mater 773–774:1101–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kan SH, Sun BY, Xu F, Song QX, Zhang SF (2015) Biosorption of aquatic copper (II) by mushroom biomass Pleurotus eryngii: kinetic and isotherm studies. Water Sci Technol 71:283–288. Scholar
  41. Kariuki Z, Kiptoo J, Onyancha D (2017) Biosorption studies of lead and copper using Rogers mushroom biomass ‘Lepiota hystrix’. S Afr J Sci 23:62–70. Scholar
  42. Kulshreshtha S, Mathur N, Bhatnagar P (2014) Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation. AMB Express 4:1–7. Scholar
  43. Lade H, Kadam A, Paul D, Govindwar S (2015) Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. EXCLI J 14:158–174. eCollection 2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Larsson PT, Hult EL, Wickholm K, Pettersson E, Iversen T (1999) CP/MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy applied to structure and interaction studies on cellulose I. Solid State Nucl Magn Reson 15(1):31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liew HH, Tay CC, Yong SK, Surif S, Abdul-Talib S (2010) Biosorption characteristics of lead [Pb(II)] by Pleurotus ostreatus biomass. In: International conference on Science and Social Research (CSSR 2010), December 5–7, 2010. 2010
  46. Lopes RX, Zied DC, Martos ET, de Souza RJ, da Silva R, Dias ES (2015) Application of spent Agaricus subrufescens compost in integrated production of seedlings and plants of tomato. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agricult 4:211–218. Scholar
  47. Marín-Benito JM, Sánchez-Martín MJ, Andrades MS, Pérez-Clavijo M, Rodríguez-Cruz MS (2009) Effect of spent mushroom substrate amendment of vineyard soils on the behavior of fungicides: 1. Adsorption-desorption of penconazole and metalaxyl by soils and subsoils. J Agric Food Chem 57Google Scholar
  48. Marín-Benito JM, Rodríguez-Crua MS, Andrades MS, Sánchez-Martín MJ (2012) Assessment of spent mushroom substrate as sorbent of fungicides: influence of sorbent and sorbate properties. J Environ Qual 41:814–822. Scholar
  49. Mathialagan T, Viraraghavan T, Cullimore DR (2003) Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions by edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus and Lentinus edodes). Water Qual Res J Can 38:499–514. Scholar
  50. Md-Desa NS, Ab-Ghani Z, Abdul-Talib S, Tay CC (2016) Performance of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni (II) removal. IOP Conf Ser: Mater Sci Eng 136:012059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Melgar MJ, Alonso J, García MA (2007) Removal of toxic metals from aqueous solutions by fungal biomass of Agaricus macrosporus. Sci Total Environ 85:12–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Muraleedharan TR, Iyengar L, Venkobachar C (1995) Screening of tropical wood-rotting mushrooms for copper biosorption. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:3507–3508Google Scholar
  53. Oei P (1991) Some aspects of mushroom cultivation in developing countries. In: Mahe M J (ed) Proceeding of the 13th international congress on the science and cultivation of fungi, vol 2. Rotterdam, Netherlands XIII, pp 777–780Google Scholar
  54. Oyetayo VO, Adebayo AO, Ibileye A (2012) Assessment of the biosorption potential of heavy metals by Pleurotus tuber-regium. Int J Adv Biol Res 2:293–297Google Scholar
  55. Pan R, Cao L, Huang H, Zhang R, Mo Y (2010) Biosorption of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from aqueous solutions by the fruiting bodies of jelly fungi (Tremella fuciformis and Auricularia polytricha). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 88:997–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pandey M, Senthil Kumaran G, Vasudeo G (2014) Making mushroom production process a zero waste enterprise. Int J Environ Sci 5:236–242. Scholar
  57. Phan CW, Sabaratnam V (2012) Potential uses of spent mushroom substrate and its associated lignocellulosic enzymes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 96(4):863–873. Scholar
  58. Prasad ASA, Varatharaju G, Anushri C, Dhivyasree S (2013) Biosorption of lead by Pleurotus florida and Trichoderma viride. Br Biotechnol J 3:66–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ribas LCC, de Mendonça MM, Camelini CM, Soares CHL (2009) Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: growth promotion and soil bioremediation. Bioresour Technol 100:4750–4757. Scholar
  60. Rodríguez-Cruz MS, Herrero-Hernández E, Ordax JM, Marín-Benito JM, Draoui K, Sánchez-Martín MJ (2012) Adsorption of pesticides by sewage sludge, grape marc, spent mushroom substrate and by amended soils. Int J Environ Anal Chem 92:933–948. Scholar
  61. Romney EM, Wallace A, Wood R, El-Gazzer AM, Childress JD, Alesander GV (1977) Role of soil organic matter in a desert soil on plant responses to silver, tungsten, cobalt and lead. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 8:719–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Royse DJ (2014) A global perspective on the high five: Agaricus, Pleurotus, Lentinula, Auricularia & Flammulina. In: Proceedings of 8th international conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products (ICMBMP8), vol I & II 2014, New Delhi, India, 19–22 November 2014, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  63. Sánchez-Martín MJ, Rodríguez-Cruz MS (2012) Dissipation of fungicides in a vineyard soil amended with different spent mushroom substrates. J Agric Food Chem 60:6936–6945.
  64. Sarı A, Tuzen M (2009) Biosorption of as(III) and as(V) from aqueous solution by macrofungus (Inonotus hispidus) biomass: equilibrium and kinetic studies. J Hazard Mater 164:1372–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sarioglu M, Gülera UA, Beyazit N (2009) Removal of copper from aqueous solutions using biosolids. Desalination 239:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sendi H, Mohamed MTM, Anwar MP, Saud HM (2013) Spent mushroom waste as a media replacement for peat moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production. Sci World J 2013:258562. Scholar
  67. Sewu DD, Boakye P, Jung H, Woo SH (2017) Synergistic dye adsorption by biochar from co-pyrolysis of spent mushroom substrate and Saccharina japonica. Bioresour Technol 244:1142–1149. Scholar
  68. Shuman LM, Li Z (1997) Amelioration of zinc toxicity in cotton using lime or mushroom compost. J Soil Contam 6:425–438. Scholar
  69. Siasar H, Sargazi F (2015) Biosorption of copper from aqueous solution using the water of leaching spent mushroom compost. Int J Rev Life Sci 5:925–929Google Scholar
  70. Singh AD, Noorlidah A, Vikineswary S (2003) Optimization of extraction of bulk enzymes from spent mushroom compost. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 78:743–752. Scholar
  71. Singh MP, Vishwakarma SK, Srivastava AK (2013) Bioremediation of direct blue 14 and extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi: Pleurotus spp. Biomed Res Int 2013:180156. Scholar
  72. Širić I, Humar M, Kasap A, Kos I, Mioč B, Pohleven F (2016) Heavy metal bioaccumulation by wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:18239–18252. Scholar
  73. Skariyachan S, Prasanna A, Manjunath SP, Karanth SS, Nazre A (2016) Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India. Environ Monit Assess 188:121. Scholar
  74. Srinivasan A, Viraraghavan T (2010) Oil removal from water by fungal biomass: a factorial design analysis. J Hazard Mater 175:695–702. Scholar
  75. Taguchi G, Konishi S (1987) Taguchi methods, orthogonal arrays and linear graphs, tools for quality American supplier institute. American Supplier Institute, Dearborn, pp 8–35Google Scholar
  76. Tay CC, Liew HH, Redzwan G, Yong SK, Surif S, Abdul-Talib S (2011) Pleurotus ostreatus spent mushroom compost as green biosorbent for nickel (II) biosorption. Water Sci Technol 64(12):2425–2432. Scholar
  77. Tay CC, Liew HH, Yong SK, Surif S, Redzwan G, Abdul-Talib S (2012) Cu(II) removal onto fungal derived biosorbents: biosorption performance and the half saturation constant concentration approach. Int J Res Chem Environ 2:138–143Google Scholar
  78. Tay CC, Khoshar-Khan MIA, Md-Desa NS, Ab-Ghani Z, Abdul-Talib S (2015) Sustainable optimization of spent mushroom compost activated carbon preparation method using central composite rotatable design response surface methodology. J Eng Sci Technol, Special Issue on ACEE 2015 Conference August (2015):40–51Google Scholar
  79. Tay CC, Liew HH, Abdul-Talib S, Redzwan G (2016) Bi-metal biosorption using Pleurotus ostreatus spent mushroom substrate (PSMS) as a biosorbent: isotherm, kinetic, thermodynamic studies and mechanism. Desalin Water Treat 57:9325–9331. Scholar
  80. Tian X, Li C, Yang H, Ye Z, Xu H (2011) Spent mushroom: a new low-cost adsorbent for removal of Congo red from aqueous solutions. Desalin Water Treat 27:319–326. Scholar
  81. Toptas A, Demierege S, Ayan EM, Yanik J (2014) Spent mushroom compost as biosorbent for dye biosorption. Clean (Weinh) 42:1721–1728. Scholar
  82. Trevors JT, Stratton GW, Gadd GM (1986) Cadmium transport,resistance and toxicity in algae, bacteria and fungi. Can J Microbiol 32:447–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tuhy L, Samoraj M, Witkowska Z, Wilk R, Chojnacka K (2015) Using spent mushroom substrate as the base for organic –mineral micronutrient fertilizer-field tests on maize. Bioresources 10:5709–5719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Udochukwu U, Nekpen BO, Udinyiwe OC, Omeje FI (2014) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and pollutants by edible mushroom collected from Iselu market Benin-city. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 3:52–57Google Scholar
  85. Vimala R, Das N (2009) Biosorption of cadmium(II) and lead(II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: a comparative study. J Hazard Mater 168:376–382. Scholar
  86. Wang J, Chen C (2009) Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future. Biotechnol Adv 27:195–226. Scholar
  87. Williams JH (1980) Effect of soil pH on thc losicil! of zinc and nickel to vegetable crops. In: Inorganic pollution and agriculture. Proceedings of a conference organizcd by the Agricultural Development and Advisory Service, April, 1977, London, pp 21–218Google Scholar
  88. Xie H, Zhao Q, Zhou Z, Wu Y, Wang H, Xu H (2015) Efficient removal of Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by magnesium chloride-modified Lentinula edodes. RSC Adv 5:33478–33488. Scholar
  89. Xu F, Liu X, Chen Y, Zhang K, Xu H (2016) Self-assembly modified-mushroom nanocomposite for rapid removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution with bubbling fluidized bed. Sci Rep 6:26201. Scholar
  90. Yan T, Wang L (2013) Adsorption removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by spent mushroom substrate: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics. Bioresources 8:4722–4734Google Scholar
  91. Yan T, Wang P, Wang L (2015) Utilization of oxalic acid modified spent mushroom substrate for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Desalin Water Treat 55:1007–1017. Scholar
  92. Yang X, Guo M, Wu Y, Wu Q, Zhang R (2014) Removal of emulsified oil from water by fruiting bodies of macro-fungus (Auricularia polytricha). PLoS One 9:e95162. eCollection 2014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zhou D, Zhang L, Guo S (2005) Mechanisms of lead biosorption on cellulose/chitin beads. Water Res 39:3755–3762. Scholar
  94. Zhou A, Zhang Y, Li R, Su X, Zhang L (2016) Adsorptive removal of sulfa antibiotics from water using spent mushroom substrate, an agricultural waste. Desalin Water Treat 57:388–397. Scholar
  95. Zulfadhly Z, Mashitah MD, Bhatia S (2001) Heavy metals removal in fixed-bed column by the macro fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus. Environ Pollut 112:463–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amity Institute of BiotechnologyAmity University RajasthanJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations