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Green Sorbents for Radioactive Pollutants Removal from Natural Water

Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 19)

Abstract

Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides are a major pollution of natural waters in some locations. Effective, appropriate and eco-friendly technologies are required to mitigate this problem. Natural materials can be used, which may help in rehabilitation and reduction in migration of radionuclides execution green technological concept. This chapter reviews the development of green sorbents and their use for the removal of radioactive wastes. Main types of green sorbents are discussed, such as activated carbons based on vegetable materials, chemically modified waste from the food industry, sorbents based on natural and technical cellulose, hydrolytic lignin, as well as living and dead phytoplankton. It is shown that activated carbons are effective sorbents for a wide spectrum of radionuclides including isotopes of cesium, strontium, lanthanides, uranium, thorium, plutonium and radon; the typical method of activated carbon production is also discussed. This chapter also presents the main sorption characteristics of various sorbents based on chemically modified natural and technical cellulose with respect to yttrium, strontium, uranium, cesium and some other radionuclides. mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on cellulose from rice husk shows distribution coefficient of cesium as high as 3.9·105 L/kg. Overall, green materials usually possess relatively low sorption properties; however, selectivity of these materials can be significantly improved via chemical modification by inorganic compounds such as phosphates, hexacyanoferrates, alkali and other. Moreover, in contrast to inorganic sorbents, natural organic materials allow obtaining sorbents with various textures such as granules, fibres and textile.

Keywords

Green sorbents Radionuclide Natural materials Radionuclide migration Activated carbons 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität HannoverInstitut für Radioökologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS)HannoverGermany
  2. 2.Radiochemistry and Applied Ecology Department, Ural Federal UniversityPhysical Technology InstituteEkaterinburgRussia
  3. 3.Defence Research LaboratoryDefence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Ministry of DefenceTezpurIndia

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