A General Framework for Formulating Adjustable Autonomy of Multi-agent Systems by Fuzzy Logic

  • Salama A. MostafaEmail author
  • Rozanawati Darman
  • Shihab Hamad Khaleefah
  • Aida Mustapha
  • Noryusliza Abdullah
  • Hanayanti Hafit
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 96)


Autonomous agents and multi-agent systems significantly facilitate solutions to many complex and distributed problem-solving environments due to the agents’ various capabilities. These environments comprise uncertain, high dynamism or irregular workload that might prone the agents to make decisions that lead to undesirable outcomes. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Logic-based Adjustable Autonomy (FLAA) as a general framework for managing the autonomy of multi-agent systems that operate in complex environments. The framework includes a fuzzy logic technique to quantitatively measure and distribute the autonomy among operators (autonomous agents and humans) based on adjustable autonomy attributes. The FLAA framework dynamically changes the autonomy of the operators to directions that meets their ability to perform and produce desirable outcomes. The technical application of the framework is demonstrated by an example scenario. The scenario illustrates the competence performance of the collaborative operators. The advantages of using the framework are to capture relationships between discrete autonomy attributes, quantify adjustable autonomy and manage adjustable autonomous multi-agent systems.


Autonomous agent Multi-agent system Adjustable autonomy Fuzzy logic 



This project is sponsored by the postdoctoral grant of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) under Vot D004 and partially supported by the Tier 1 research grant scheme of UTHM under Vot U893.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salama A. Mostafa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rozanawati Darman
    • 1
  • Shihab Hamad Khaleefah
    • 2
  • Aida Mustapha
    • 1
  • Noryusliza Abdullah
    • 1
  • Hanayanti Hafit
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Computer Science and Information TechnologyUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn MalaysiaParit RajaMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Computer ScienceAl Maarif University CollegeAnbarIraq

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