Breeding of Garcinia spp.

  • Hosakatte Niranjana MurthyEmail author
  • Vijayalaxmi S. Dandin
  • Dayanand Dalawai
  • So-Young Park
  • Kee-Yoeup Paek


Garcinias are trees known for their delicious fruits and medicinal value. Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen or purple mangosteen); G. gummi-gutta (L.) N. Bobson. (Malabar tamarind) and G. indica Choisy (kokum) are the major species cultivated in tropical countries. Most Garcinia species are apomictic and hence, have narrow genetic diversity. However, germplasm exploration and analysis of genetic diversity using morphological and molecular markers depict variability in architecture of the tree, fruit shape, color, size, yield, nutrients, phytochemical levels, tolerance to drought and salinity, and other useful characteristics. Therefore, selection is the first criterion for the improvement of Garcinia species. Superior genotypes have been selected with respect to size and shape of the fruit, seed number, shelf life, fruiting precocity and external coloration, in all three Garcinia species from natural populations and released for cultivation. Efforts have been made to improve these crops through mutation breeding as well. Selection of rootstock and grafting has been carried out for the improvement of drought tolerance, salinity tolerance, tree architecture and early flowering. Micropropagation of mangosteen and kokum was achieved using seed and seedling explants. Recent breeding programs to improve the Garcinias are highlighted in this review.


Garcinia Hydroxy citric acid Kokum Malabar tamarind Mangosteen 



The authors are grateful to the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for funding the PURSE-Phase II program to Karnatak University, Dharwad, India.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vijayalaxmi S. Dandin
    • 1
  • Dayanand Dalawai
    • 1
  • So-Young Park
    • 2
  • Kee-Yoeup Paek
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyKarnatak UniversityDharwadIndia
  2. 2.Research Center for the Development of Advanced Horticultural Technology, Chungbuk National UniversityCheongjuRepublic of Korea

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