Compliance with Static vs. Dynamic Warnings in Workplaces such as Warehouses: A Study Using Virtual Reality

  • Ana AlmeidaEmail author
  • Francisco Rebelo
  • Paulo Noriega
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10920)


The static nature of traditional warnings cannot always capture the user’s attention. The effectiveness of a warning refers to the way in which it prompts the user to engage in safe behavior. It is known that behavioral compliance is the “golden measure” for evaluating the effectiveness of a warning. Several studies have shown that traditional warnings are not effective in an emergency. Several researches indicate that dynamic safety warnings are more effective than static ones. However, these studies are mostly in critical situations such as emergency evacuations. Literature is not clear about the existence of research on warnings in warehouse operating environments. However, it is known that warehouses are environments where employees often work under pressure and are often involved in accidents. This study objective was to compare the effectiveness of static safety warnings with dynamic ones. This kind of study in real-life is a difficult issue. So, we used an immersive virtual environment for this purpose. Virtual Reality (VR) can be assumed as the most adequate methodology to use in this context, as it overcomes methodological, financial and ethical limitations. Fourteen volunteers participated in the experience. Main results confirmed that dynamic warnings produce greater behavioral compliance even in less dynamic situations such as workplaces such warehouses .


Warnings Virtual reality Warehouse 



This work was supported by grants BEX 0660-13/2 to Ana Almeida from CAPES Foundation Ministry of Education of Brazil and CIAUD Research Center from School of Architecture from Universidade de Lisboa through Portuguese Foundation of Science and Technology (FCT).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Almeida
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Francisco Rebelo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paulo Noriega
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculdade de Arquitetura, Centro de Investigação em Arquitetura, Urbanismo e DesignUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Laboratório de ErgonomiaUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of BrazilBrasília – DFBrazil

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