Young Chinese Consumers’ Perception of Passenger Car Form in Rear View

  • Chunrong LiuEmail author
  • Yi Jin
  • Xiaoguo Ding
  • Yang Xie
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10920)


It aims to explore the perception of passenger car form in rear view of young Chinese consumers as the main force in China’s passenger car market. Young Chinese consumers as subjects are invited to estimate the similarity of eighty form samples of triple-compartment passenger car form in rear view selected by engine displacement and brand. Then seven form categories are classified by cluster analysis and consumers’ perceptual map is plotted by multidimensional scaling, respectively. The gradual form change related to the distribution of eighty form samples in the perceptual map is further analyzed qualitatively. It is found that (1) in their cognitive process, young Chinese consumers perceive and judge the passenger car form in rear view and its variation by both overall and local form features. The former are features including ratio of height to width, stiff or round style, and richness of details and sense of depth in trail, while the latter are ones such as taillights, the blend between side window and the side of body, and the upper surface of trunk; and (2) the degree of variance in the form in rear view of passenger cars in current Chinese market is limited since the samples in each of seven categories are distributed dispersedly in the perceptual map.


Passenger car form in rear view Consumer research The perceptual map Quantitative and qualitative analyses 


  1. 1.
    Kantowitz, B.H., Roediger, H.L., Elmes, D.G.: Experimental Psychology. East China Normal University Press, Shanghai (2001). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yang, F.: A study of the influence of passenger car styling on consumer purchase decision. Master’s thesis, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (2016). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li, M., Lu, Z., Huang, L.: Imagery cognition of automobile form based on eye movement tracking and semantic differential methods. Art Educ. (4), 212–214 (2016). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yu, D.: A study on the factors of automobile styling with preferences of young people in China. In: Computer-Aided Industrial Design and Conceptual Design, vol. 2, pp. 1022–1027. IEEE, Yiwu (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yoon, H.K., Fu, K., Zhou, J., et al.: Chinese sensitivity analysis for a compact car exterior design. Sens. Sci. 15(2), 317–327 (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang, L., Cheng, Z.: Female psychology, consumption preference and automobile form design. Mod. Decor. (Theory Ed.) (3), 136 (2015). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fu, L., Yu, H., Li, X.: Projection principle and evaluation model of autobody surface modeling cognition-intention. J. Jilin Univ. (Eng. Technol. Ed.) 45(1), 49–54 (2015). (in Chinese)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jing, C., Zhao, J.: The automobile modeling evaluation from the perspective of product experience. Packag. Eng. 35(22), 17–21 (2014). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hu, T., Zhao, J., Zhao, D.: Pattern study of design imagery processing and aesthetic cognition. Zhuangshi (2), 104–105 (2015). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jagtap, S., Jagtap, S.: Aesthetic design process: descriptive design research and ways forward. In: Chakrabarti, A. (ed.) ICoRD 2015 – Research into Design Across Boundaries Volume 1. SIST, vol. 34, pp. 375–385. Springer, New Delhi (2015). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chang, H.C., Lai, H.H., Chang, Y.M.: A measurement scale for evaluating the attractiveness of a passenger car form aimed at young consumers. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 37(1), 21–30 (2007)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chang, H.C., Chen, H.Y.: Optimizing product form attractiveness using Taguchi method and TOPSIS algorithm: a case study involving a passenger car. Concur. Eng. Res. Appl. 22(2), 135–147 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yusof, W.Z.M., Hasri, M., Ujang, B.: Innovation in form generation: anthropomorphism for contextual collaboration in car styling. In: Abidin, S.Z., Legino, R., Noor, H.M., Vermol, V.V., Anwar, R., Kamaruzaman, M.F. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd International Colloquium of Art and Design Education Research (i-CADER 2015), pp. 189–204. Springer, Singapore (2016). Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jiang, C.: Styling and development of heavy truck based on the study of consumers’ preferences. Master’s thesis, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (2013). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang, B., Li, B.J., Hu, P., et al.: Semantic-oriented shape exploration for car styling. In: 2014 5th International Conference on Digital Home, pp. 368–373. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pednekar, A.P.: Empirical study of consumer perception towards select car brands. J. Commer. Manag. Thought 4(4), 837–842 (2013)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhu, Y., Zhao, J.: Automobile modeling based on archetype theory. Packag. Eng. 35(6), 24–28 (2014). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lu, Z., Zhang, Y., Cheng, B., et al.: A study on the cognitive mechanism of car styling based on style feature. Automot. Eng. 38(3), 280–287 (2016). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ranscombe, C., Hicks, B., Mullineux, G., et al.: Visually decomposing vehicle images: exploring the influence of different aesthetic features on consumer perception of brand. Des. Stud. 33(4), 319–341 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abidin, S.Z., Othman, A., Shamsuddin, Z., et al.: The challenges of developing styling DNA design methodologies for car design. In: 16th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, pp. 738–743, University of Twente, The Netherlands (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hu, W., Chen, L., Liu, S., et al.: Research on the extraction and visualization of vehicle brand form gene. Mach. Des. Res. 27(2), 65–68, 79 (2011). (in Chinese)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hu, T., Zhao, J., Zhao, D.: Imagery cognition differences between designers and users on automobile modeling. Packag. Eng. 36(24), 33–36 (2015). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huang, D.: Research on side-view forms of sedans based on the form dynamic theory of visual perception. Master’s thesis, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (2015). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wan, X.R., Che, J.M., Han, L.: Car styling perceptual modeling based on fuzzy rules. Appl. Mech. Mater. 201–202, 794–797 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chuang, M.C., Chang, C.C., Hsu, S.H.: Perceptual factors underlying user preferences toward product form of mobile phones. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 27(4), 247–258 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chang, H.C., Lai, H.H., Chang, Y.M.: Expression modes used by consumers in conveying desire for product form: a case study of a car. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 36(1), 3–10 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lai, H.H., Chang, Y.M., Chang, H.C.: A robust design approach for enhancing the feeling quality of a product: a car profile case study. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 35(5), 445–460 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li, R., Dong, S.: Styling aiding methods based on emotional words and car styling prototype fitting. Packag. Eng. 37(20), 25–29 (2016). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Huang, Q., Sun, S.: Research on automobile sketch design based on image cognition model. J. Zhejiang Univ. (Eng. Sci.) 40(4), 553–559 (2006). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li, Z., Xia, J.: A quantitative method on formative elements optimization of car styling design. Adv. Mater. Res. 118, 748–752 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gao, S.: Research on design language of affecting image cognition of automobile form. Packag. Eng. (2), 65–69 (2012). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhu, X., Liu, C.: Fashion trend in automobile design. Art Sci. Technol. 27(3), 254, 266 (2014). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Huang, Z.: Research on evolution of automotive design style. Master’s thesis, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (2010). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Huang, Z.: Modern car design and traditional culture. Art Des. (Theory) (1), 184–186 (2010). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bluntzer, J.B., Ostrosi, E., Sagot, J.C.: Styling of cars: is there a relationship between the style of cars and the culture identity of a specific country? Proc. IMechE Part D: J. Automob. Eng. 229, 38–51 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu, C., Zhu, X.: Young consumers’ perception of form style of passenger cars. Packag. Eng. 37(24), 6–10 (2016). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang, Y., Lu, Z.: A design method of automobile front face for users’ cognizance. J. Graph. 34(5), 93–98 (2013). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu, C.: Design Strategy Development for Product Innovation. Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press, Shanghai (2015). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yao, X., Hu, H.Y., Li, J.: Kansei engineering in automotive body-side styling design. In: 2011 IEEE 18th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, vol. 1, pp. 143–147. IEEE, Changchun (2011)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Luo, S.J., Fu, Y.T., Zhou, Y.X.: Perceptual matching of shape design style between wheel hub and car type. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 42, 90–102 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fan, D., Wang, X., Zhou, M.: Perception of car’s wheel hub based on principal component analysis. Sci. Technol. Inf. (10), 119–120 (2010). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu, G., Huang, D., Liu, C.: Preference of car form feature based on DEMATEL method. China Packag. Ind. (24), 34–36 (2014). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Comprehensive data analysis of automobile market (2016). Accessed 24 Jan 2016. (in Chinese)
  44. 44.
    The influence of slowing growth of Chinese macroeconomics in 2016 on automobile sales and characteristics, demand and capacity of consumer populations. Accessed 18 Dec 2017. (in Chinese)
  45. 45.
    Zhang, W.: Advanced Course of Statistical Analysis in SPSS, pp. 235–247. Higher Education Press, Beijing (2004). (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations