Urban Development, Food Shortages, and Mass Killing in Authoritarian Pakistan

  • Bumba MukherjeeEmail author
  • Ore Koren


In this chapter, we conduct a meticulous mixed-methods analysis of urbanization, food crises, and mass killing in authoritarian Pakistan. We begin by providing a detailed explanation as to why Pakistan is an empirically valid case for estimating the mechanisms we hypothesize in Chapter “ Food Crises, Urban Development, and Mass Killing in Nondemocratic States.” We then provide a brief historical discussion of the country and its economy and describe the key features of the Pakistani case. As shown in this chapter, Pakistan consistently suffers from repeated agricultural (i.e., food) production crises over both its nondemocratic spells. However, the level of urban development in the country is fairly low in the late 1970s and does not really increase to reach a sufficiently high level until after 1985. We use both historical evidence and statistical analysis of novel within-country city-year data on anti-regime riots and state-led mass killing in Pakistan to carefully analyze this case.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political SciencePennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Political ScienceIndiana University BloomingtonBloomingtonUSA

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