Manila Bay Ecology and Associated Invasive Species

  • Benjamin M. VallejoJr.Email author
  • Alexander B. Aloy
  • Melody Ocampo
  • Jennifer Conejar-Espedido
  • Leanna M. Manubag
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 29)


As the location of the oldest and busiest international port in the Philippines, Manila Bay is a prime location to study the ecology and dynamics of marine biological invasion in a tropical high marine biodiversity environment. The bay is historically within the center of marine biodiversity in the Philippines. Rapid urbanization in the last 150 years as a result of the expansion of the City of Manila and its suburbs has changed the estuarine watershed and has resulted in environmental change. This is reflected in eutrophication, sedimentation, pollution and land reclamation that has altered fisheries, coastal oceanography and ecology. These problems are exacerbated by the governance system of the National Capital Region resulting in unplanned urban development. In this environment, most of the invertebrate marine non-indigenous species (MNIS) that are invasive in other tropical estuarine ports are not invasive in Manila Bay. It is hypothesized that monsoon driven periodic hypoxia and other pollution related events prevent invasion. While this is true for most of the MNIS, the tropical Atlantic mussel Mytella charruana was introduced in 2014 and is now invasive in the bay. The biological characteristics of this species are likely to displace the pollution tolerant indigenous and non-indigenous malacofauna. The Supreme Court has taken notice of the environmental condition of the bay and through a 2008 Mandamus, ordered the Executive Department of the Philippines Government to restore the environmental quality of the bay. The effects of the Mandamus in rehabilitating the bay still have to be seen and on this any effective management of any marine biological invasion lies.


Non-indigenous Marine Species (MNIS) Mytella Charruana Mandamus Mytilopsis Department Of Environment And Natural Resources (DENR) 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin M. VallejoJr.
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexander B. Aloy
    • 2
  • Melody Ocampo
    • 3
  • Jennifer Conejar-Espedido
    • 4
  • Leanna M. Manubag
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology, Science and Society Program, College of ScienceUniversity of the PhilippinesDiliman, Quezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.Toolijooa Environmental RestorationTerrey HillsAustralia
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of the Philippines ManilaErmita, ManilaPhilippines
  4. 4.Institute of Biological SciencesUniversity of the Philippines Los Baños, CollegeLos BañosPhilippines
  5. 5.Biodiversity Management BureauDiliman, Quezon CityPhilippines

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