Setting the Scene for the Narratives to Follow

  • Lily Lei YeEmail author
Part of the Palgrave Studies on Chinese Education in a Global Perspective book series (CEGP)


This book explores a topic which has received very little attention to date, namely the identity formation and negotiation of Chinese doctoral students in relation to study abroad. This book moves away from the focus on student adaption to an exploration of agency and identity, challenging the culturalist and essentialised view of Chinese students as a homogeneous and sometimes problematic group. I first look at what is meant by globalisation and internationalisation of higher education. I then examine the phenomenon of studying abroad, followed by a review of literature on international doctoral students. I point out the importance of researching on Chinese doctoral students. I also outline the specific research questions that guide the study, and then explain the significance of the book project.


International Doctoral Students Study abroadStudy Abroad Identity formationIdentity Formation Social integrationSocial Integration globalisationGlobalisation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Akande, Y., & Slawson, C. (2000). Exploring the long-term impact of study abroad: A case study of 50 years of study abroad alumni. International Educator, 9(3), 12–17.Google Scholar
  2. Alghamdi, H., & Otte, S. (2016). The challenges and benefits of study abroad. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 6(5), 16–22.Google Scholar
  3. Alred, G., & Byram, M. (2005). British students in France: 10 years on. In M. Byram & A. Feng (Eds.), Living and studying abroad: Research and practice (pp. 210–231). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  4. Alred, G., Byram, M., & Fleming, A. (Eds.). (2003). Intercultural experience and education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  5. Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J. (2007). Internationalization of higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 33(3/4), 290–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Altbach, P., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L. (2009). Trends in global higher education, tracking an academic revolution. Boston: Centre for International Higher Education, Boston College.Google Scholar
  7. Amuzie, G., & Winke, P. (2009). Changes in language learning beliefs as a result of study abroad. System, 37, 366–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, L. C. (2005). Internationalizing undergraduate education: Integrating study abroad into the curriculum. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  9. Anderson, P. H., & Lawton, L. (2012). Intercultural development: Study abroad vs. on-campus study. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21, 86–108.Google Scholar
  10. Anderson, P. H., Hubbard, A., & Lawton, L. (2015). Student motivation to study abroad and their intercultural development. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, XXVI, 39–52.Google Scholar
  11. Andrade, M. S. (2006). International students in English-speaking universities. Journal of Research in International Education, 5(2), 131–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barnes, B. J., Williams, E. A., & Archer, S. A. (2010). Characteristics that matter most: Doctoral students’ perceptions of positive and negative advisor attributes. NACADA Journal, 30(1), 34–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beaven, A., & Borghetti, C. (2016). Editorial: Interculturality in study abroad. Language and Intercultural Communication, 16(3), 313–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhandari, R., & Chow, P. (2008). Open doors 2008: Report on international educational exchange. New York: Institute of International Education.Google Scholar
  15. Bilecen, B. (2013). Negotiating differences: Cosmopolitan experiences of international doctoral students. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 43(5), 667–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bilecen, B. (2016). International students and Cosmopolitanisms: Educational mobility in a global age. In A. Amelina, K. Horvath, & B. Meeus (Eds.), An anthology of migration and social transformation (pp. 231–244). Cham: Springer, IMISCOE Research Series.Google Scholar
  17. Bilecen, B., & Faist, T. (2015). International doctoral students as knowledge brokers: Reciprocity, trust and solidarity in transnational networks. Global Networks, 15(2), 217–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blasco, M. (2015). Making the tacit explicit: Rethinking culturally inclusive pedagogy in international student academic adaptation. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 23(1), 85–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bodycott, P. (2009). Choosing a higher education study abroad destination—What Mainland Chinese parents and students rates as important. Journal of Research in International Education, 8(3), 349–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bodycott, P., & Lai, A. (2012). The influence and implications of Chinese culture in the decision to undertake cross-border higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 16(3), 252–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bonazzo, C., & Wong, Y. J. (2007). Japanese international female students’ experience of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes. College Student Journal, 41(3), 631–639.Google Scholar
  22. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice (R. Nice, Trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  23. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bridgestock, L. (2014). Why study abroad? Five reasons [on-line]. Available at Accessed 15 Sept 2015.
  25. Brown, L. (2009). International education: A force for peace and cross-cultural understanding? Journal of Peace Education, 6(2), 209–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Burton, R., & Kirshbaum, M. N. (2013). Supporting international students on professional doctorate programmes: A perspective from the United Kingdom. Work Based Learning e-Journal International, 3(1), 109–121.Google Scholar
  27. Byram, M., & Feng, A. (Eds.). (2006). Living and studying abroad: Research and practice. Clevedon, Buffolo & Toronto: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  28. Campbell, T. A. (2015). A phenomenological study on international doctoral students’ acculturation experiences at a U.S. university. Journal of International Students, 5(3), 285–299.Google Scholar
  29. Cantu, M. P. (2013). Three effective strategies of internationalization in American universities. Journal of International Education and Leadership, 3(3), 1–12.Google Scholar
  30. Cantwell, B., Luca, S. G., & Lee, J. J. (2009). Exploring the orientations of international students in Mexico: Differences by region of origin. Higher Education, 57, 335–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cebolla-Boado, H., Hu, Y., & Soysal, Y. N. (2018). Why study abroad? Sorting of Chinese students across British universities. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 39(3), 365–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chellaraj, G., Maskus, K., & Mattoo, A. (2008). The contribution of international graduate students to US innovation. Review of International Economics, 16(3), 444–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chen, J. M. (2017). Three levels of push-pull dynamics among Chinese international students’ decision to study abroad in the Canadian context. Journal of International Students, 7(1), 113–135.Google Scholar
  34. Chieffo, L., & Griffiths, L. (2004). Large-scale assessment of student attitudes after a short term study abroad program. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 165–177.Google Scholar
  35. Childress, L. K. (2009). Planning for internationalization by investing in faculty. Journal of International & Global Studies, 1(1), 30–49.Google Scholar
  36. Church, A. T. (1982). Sojourner adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 91(3), 540–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M. (2000). Narrative inquiry: Experience and story in qualitative research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  38. Craft, C. M., Augustine-Shaw, D., Fairbanks, A., & Adams-Wright, D. (2016). Advising doctoral students in education programs. NACADA Journal, 36(1), 54–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Davis, H., Evans, T., & Hickey, C. (2006). A knowledge-based economy landscape: Implications for tertiary education and research training in Australia. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 28(3), 231–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. de Wit, H. (2002). Internationalization of higher education in the United States of America and Europe: A historical, comparative, and conceptual analysis. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  41. de Wit, H., Hunter, F., Howard, L., & Egron-Polak, E. (2015). Internationalisation of higher education. Brussels: Policy Department, Directorate General for Internal Policies, European Parliament.Google Scholar
  42. Deardorff, D. K. (2012). The Sage handbook of international higher education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Dervin, F. (2009, June 12–14). The solidification of Chineseness in academic mobility: Critical reviews of ‘intercultural’ research articles on Chinese students. Paper presented at CAFIC conference, Beijing.Google Scholar
  44. Dervin, F. (2011). A plea for change in research on intercultural discourses: A ‘liquid’ approach to the study of the acculturation of Chinese students. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 6(1), 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Devos, A. (2003). Academic standards, internationalization and the discursive construction of “the international student”. Higher Education Research and Development, 22(2), 155–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dewey, D. P. (2004). A comparison of reading development by learners of Japanese in intensive domestic immersion and study abroad contexts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 303–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dewey, D. P., Belnap, R. K., & Hillstrom, R. (2013). Social network development, language use, and language acquisition during study abroad: Arabic language learners’ perspectives. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, XXXII, 84–110.Google Scholar
  48. Ding, H. (2009). East meets West: Chinese students making sense of their cultural identity in London. Changing English, 16(3), 313–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ding, Q. (2016). Understanding Chinese international doctoral students in New Zealand: A literature review of contemporary writings about Chinese overseas research students New Zealand. Journal of Teachers’ Work, 13(2), 118–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ding, Q., & Devine, N. (2017). Agency and social capital in Chinese international doctoral students’ conversion to Christianity. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 49(12), 1161–1172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Doyle, S., Manathunga, C., Prinsen, G., Tallon, R., & Cornforth, S. (2017). African international students in New Zealand: Englishes, doctoral writing and intercultural supervision. Higher Education Research and Development, 37(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
  52. Durkin, K. (2008). The adaptation of East Asian masters students to western norms of critical thinking and argumentation in the UK. Intercultural Education, 19(1), 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Durkin, K. (2011). Adapting to Western norms of critical argumentation and debate. In L. Jin & M. Cortazzi (Eds.), Researching Chinese learners: Skills, perceptions, and intercultural adaptations (pp. 274–291). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Edwards, V., & An, A. (2006). Meeting the needs of Chinese students in British higher education. Available at
  55. Egron-Polak, E., & Hudson, R. (2014). Internationalization of higher education: Growing expectations, fundamental values: IAU 4th global survey. Paris: International Association of Universities. Retrieved from Accessed 8 Jan 2018.
  56. Ellwood, C. (2009). Uninhabitable identifications: Unpacking the production of racial difference in a TESOL classroom. In R. Kubota & A. Lin (Eds.), Race, culture, and identities in second language education: Exploring critically engaged practice (pp. 101–117). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Erichsen, E. A., & Bolliger, D. U. (2011). Towards understanding international graduate student isolation in traditional and online environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59(3), 309–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fang, W., & Wang, S. (2014). Chinese students’ choice of transnational higher education in a globalized higher education market: A case study of W university. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(5), 475–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Findlay, A. M., King, R., Smith, F. M., Geddes, A., & Skeldon, R. (2012). World class? An investigation of globalization, difference and international student mobility. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 3(1), 118–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fotovatian, S. (2012). Three constructs of institutional identity among international doctoral students in Australia. Teaching in Higher Education, 17(5), 577–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fotovatian, S., & Miller, J. (2014). Constructing an institutional identity in university tea rooms: The international PhD student experience. Higher Education Research & Development, 33(2), 286–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Franklin, K. (2010). Long-term career impact and professional applicability of the study abroad experience. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, XIX, 169–190.Google Scholar
  63. Gargano, T. (2009). (Re)conceptualizing international student mobility: The potential of transnational social fields. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(3), 331–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Giddens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity: The Raymond Fred West memorial lectures. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  66. Gill, S. (2007). Overseas students’ intercultural adaptation as intercultural learning: A transformative framework. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 37(2), 167–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Golde, C. M. (2005). The role of department and discipline in doctoral student attrition: Lessons from four departments. The Journal of Higher Education, 76, 669–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Goode, J. (2007). Empowering or disempowering the international Ph.D. student? Constructions of the dependent and independent learner. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 28(5), 589–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Green, M. F., & Olson, C. L. (2003). Internationalizing the campus: A user’s guide. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.Google Scholar
  70. Griner, J., & Sobol, A. (2014). Chinese students’ motivations for studying abroad. Global Studies Journal, 7(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gu, Q., Schweisfurth, M., & Day, C. (2010). Learning and growing in a “foreign” context: Intercultural experiences of international students. Compare, 40(1), 7–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Harryba, S. A., Guilfoyle, A. M., & Knight, S. (2011). Understanding the challenges of accessing university support services: The perspectives of staff members and international students. International Journal of Learning, 18(6), 263–289.Google Scholar
  73. Heng, T. (2016). Different is not deficient: Contradicting stereotypes of Chinese international students in US higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 43(1), 22–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Heppner, P. P., & Heppner, M. J. (2003). Writing and publishing your thesis, dissertation, & research: A guide for students in the helping professions. Belmont, CA: Thompson.Google Scholar
  75. Higher Education Academy. (2016). Framework for internationalising higher education. York: Higher Education Academy. Available from
  76. Holmes, P. (2005). Ethnic Chinese students’ communication with cultural others in a New Zealand university. Communication Education, 54(4), 289–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hseih, M. (2006). Identity negotiation among female Chinese international students in second-language higher education. College Student Journal, 40(4), 870–884.Google Scholar
  78. Hseih, M. (2007). Challenges for international students in higher education: One student’s narrated story of invisibility and struggle. College Student Journal, 41(2), 379–391.Google Scholar
  79. Hser, M. P. (2005). Campus internationalization: A study of American universities’ internationalization efforts. International Education, 35(1), 35–48.Google Scholar
  80. Hudzik, J. K. (2011). Comprehensive internationalization: From concept to action. Washington, DC: NAFSA, The Association of International Educators.Google Scholar
  81. Jackson, J. (2008). Language, identity, and study abroad: Sociocultural perspectives. London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  82. Jackson, J. (2010). Intercultural journeys: From study to residence abroad. Basingstoke and Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Jackson, J. (2011). Cultivating cosmopolitan, intercultural citizenship through critical reflection and international, experiential learning. Language and Intercultural Communication, 11(2), 80–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jackson, M., Ray, S., & Bybell, D. (2013). International students in the U.S.: Social and psychological adjustment. Journal of International Students, 3(1), 17–28.Google Scholar
  85. Jibeen, T., & Khan, M. A. (2015). Development of an academic achievement risk assessment scale for undergraduates: Low, medium and high achievers. Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research, 6(1), 23–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jindal-Snape, D., & Ingram, R. (2013). Understanding and supporting triple transitions of international doctoral students: ELT and SuReCom models. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice, 1(1), 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kambouropoulos, A. (2015). Barriers to the utilisation of counselling services by international students. World Journal of Education, 5(5), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kegel, K. (2009). Homesickness in international college students. In G. R. Walz, J. C. Bleuer, & R. K. Yep (Eds.), Compelling counseling interventions: VISTAS 2009 (pp. 67–76). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.Google Scholar
  89. Kehm, B. M., & Teichler, U. (2007). Research on internationalisation in higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3/4 Fall/Winter): 260–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kelo, M., Teichler, U., & Wächter, B. (Eds.). (2006). Eurodata: Student mobility in European higher education. Bonn: Lemmens.Google Scholar
  91. Kerklaan, V., Moreira, G., & Boersma, K. (2008). The role of language in the internationalisation of higher education: An example from Portugal. European Journal of Education, 43(2), 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kettle, M. (2005). Agency as discursive practice: From “nobody” to “somebody” as an international student in Australia. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 25(1), 45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Killick, D. (2013). Global citizenship, sojourning students and campus communities. Teaching in Higher Education, 18(7), 721–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Killick, D. (2015). Developing the global student. Higher education in an era of globalization. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  95. Kim, H. Y. (2011). International graduate students’ difficulties: Graduate classes as a community of practices. Teaching in Higher Education, 16(3), 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kim, Y. (2012). Being in concert: An explication of synchrony in intercultural communication. In T. J. Socha & M. Pitts (Eds.), The positive side of interpersonal communication (pp. 39–56). New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  97. King, P. M., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2005). A developmental model of intercultural maturity. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 571–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kinginger, C. (2009). Language learning and study abroad: A critical reading of research. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kinginger, C. (2011). Enhancing language learning in study abroad. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 58–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kinginger, C. (Ed.). (2013). Social and cultural aspects of language learning in study abroad. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  101. Knight, J. (1999). Internationalization of higher education. In J. Knight (Ed.), Quality of internationalization in higher education (pp. 13–18). Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  102. Knight, J. (2004). Internationalization remodelled: Definition, approaches, and rationales. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(1), 5–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Knight, J. (2007). Internationalization brings important benefits as well as risks. International Higher Education, 46, 8–10.Google Scholar
  104. Knight, J. (2008). The internationalization of higher education: Are we on the right track? Academic Matters, 52(Oct–Nov), 5–9.Google Scholar
  105. Knight, J. (2010). Internationalization and the competitiveness agenda. In L. M. Portnoi, V. D. Rust, & S. S. Bagley (Eds.), Higher education, policy, and the global competition phenomenon (pp. 205–218). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Knight, J. (2015). Meaning, rationales and tensions in internationalization of higher education. In S. McGrath & Q. Gu (Eds.), Routledge handbook on international education and development (pp. 325–339). London: Taylor Francis.Google Scholar
  107. Knight, J., & Madden, M. (2010). International mobility of Canadian social sciences and humanities doctoral students. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 40(2), 18–24.Google Scholar
  108. Knox, S., Sokol, J. T., Inman, A. G., Schlosser, L. Z., Nilsson, J., & Wang, Y. (2013). International advisees’ perspectives on the advising relationship in counseling psychology doctoral programs. International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 2(1), 45–61.Google Scholar
  109. Koehne, N. (2006). (Be)Coming, (Be)Longing: Ways in which international students talk about themselves. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 27(2), 241–257.Google Scholar
  110. Kuo, Y. H. (2011). Language challenges faced by international graduate students in the United States. Journal of International Students, 1(2), 38–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lane, J., Lane, A. M., & Kyprianou, A. (2004). Self-efficacy, self-esteem and their impact on academic performance. Social Behaviour and Personality: An International Journal, 32(3), 247–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Le, T., & Gardner, S. K. (2010). Understanding the doctoral experience of Asian international students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields: An exploration of one institutional context. Journal of College Student Development, 51(3), 252–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Leask, B. (2015). Internationalizing the curriculum. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  114. Lebcir, R. M., Wells, H., & Bond, A. (2008). Factors affecting academic performance of international students in project management courses: A case study from a British post 92 university. International Journal of Project Management, 26(3), 268–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Leder, G. C., & Forgasz, H. J. (2004). Australian and international mature students: The daily challenges. Higher Education Research & Development, 23(2), 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lee, K., & Carrasquillo, A. (2006). Korean college students in United States: Perceptions of professors and students. College Student Journal, 40(2), 442–457.Google Scholar
  117. Leonard, D., & Becker, R. (2009). The doctoral experience at the local level. In D. Boud & A. Lee (Eds.), Changing practices of doctoral education (pp. 71–86). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  118. Leonard, D., & Metcalfe, J. (2006). Review of literature on the impact of working context and support on the postgraduate research student learning experience. York: Higher Education Academy.Google Scholar
  119. Lesjak, M., Juvan, E., Ineson, E. M., Yap, M. H., & Axelsson, E. P. (2015). Erasmus student motivation: Why and where to go? Higher Education, 70, 845–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Li, M., & Bray, M. (2007). Cross-border flows of students for higher education: Push-pull factors and motivations of mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong and Macau. Higher Education, 53(6), 791–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Li, W., & Collins, C. S. (2014). Chinese doctoral student socialization in the United States: A qualitative study. FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education, 1(2), 32–57.Google Scholar
  122. Li, A., & Gasser, M. B. (2005). Predicting Asian international students’ sociocultural adjustment: A test of two mediation models. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, 561–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Lin, S.-Y., & Scherz, S. D. (2014). Challenges facing Asian international graduate students in the US: Pedagogical considerations in higher education. Journal of International Students, 4(1), 16–33.Google Scholar
  124. Luo, J. (2013). Career services as a bridge to international student acculturation and success. The Vermont Connection, 34(8). Available at
  125. MacIntyre, P. (2007). Willingness to communicate in the second language: Understanding the decision to speak as a volitional process. Modern Language Journal, 91, 564–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Macready, C., & Tucker, C. (2011). Who goes where and why? An overview and analysis of global educational mobility. New York: Institute of International Education.Google Scholar
  127. Maddux, W. W., & Galinsky, A. D. (2009). Cultural borders and mental barriers. The relationship between living abroad and creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(5), 1047–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Maher, M. A., Ford, M. E., & Thompson, C. M. (2004). Degree progress of women doctoral students: Factors that constrain, facilitate, and differentiate. The Review of Higher Education, 27, 385–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Marginson, S. (2014). Student self-formation in international education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(1), 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Marginson, S., & McBurnie, G. (2004). Cross-border post-secondary education in the Asia pacific region (Chapter for OECD study of Internationalisation and Trade in Higher Education). Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
  131. Marginson, S., & Sawir, E. (2005). Interrogating global flows in higher education. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 3(3), 281–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Marginson, S., & van der Wende, M. (2007). Globalisation and higher education (OECD Education Working Papers, No. 8). OECD.
  133. Marginson, S., Nyland, C., Sawir, E., & Forbes-Mewett, H. (2010). International student security. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Maringe, F., & Foskett, N. (Eds.). (2010). Globalisation and internationalisation of higher education: Theoretical, strategic and management perspectives. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  135. Martin, F. (2017). Mobile self-fashioning and gendered risk: Rethinking Chinese students’ motivations for overseas education. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 15(5), 706–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Mazzarol, T., & Soutar, G. N. (2002). Push-pull factors influencing student destination choice. International Journal of Education Management, 16(2), 82–90.Google Scholar
  137. Mazzarol, T., Kemp, S., & Savery, L. (1997). International students who choose not to study in Australia: An examination of Taiwan and Indonesia. Canberra: Australian International Education Foundation.Google Scholar
  138. McDonald, I. (2014). Supporting international students in UK higher education institutions. Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education, 18(2), 62–65.Google Scholar
  139. Mechtenberg, L., & Strausz, R. (2008). The Bologna process: How student mobility affects multi-cultural skills and educational quality. International Tax and Public Finance, 15(2), 109–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Menzies, J. L., & Baron, R. (2014). International postgraduate student transition experiences: The importance of student societies and friends. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 51(1), 84–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Messelink, H. E., van Maele, J., & Spencer-Oatey, H. (2015). Intercultural competencies: What students in study and placement mobility should be learning. Intercultural Education, 26(1), 62–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Millett, C. M., & Nettles, M. T. (2006). Expanding and cultivating the Hispanic STEM doctoral workforce: Research on doctoral student experiences. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 5(3), 258–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Mohrman, K., Ma, W., & Baker, D. (2008). The research university in transition: The emerging global model. Higher Education Policy, 21, 5–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Mori, S. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counselling and Development, 78, 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Murphy, D., Sahakyan, N., Yong-Yi, D., & Magnan, S. S. (2014). The impact of study abroad on the global engagement of university graduates. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 24, 1–24.Google Scholar
  146. Murphy-Lejeune, E. (2002). Student mobility and narrative in Europe: The new strangers. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Naidoo, V. (2006). International education: A tertiary-level industry update. Journal of Research in International Education, 5(3), 323–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Nerad, M., & Heggelund, M. (Eds.). (2008). Towards a global PhD? Forces and forms in doctoral education worldwide. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  149. Nilsson, B. (2003). Internationalisation at home from a Swedish perspective: The case of Malmö. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(1), 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Nilsson, P. A., & Ripmeester, N. (2016). International student expectations: Career opportunities and employability. Journal of International Students, 6(2), 614–631.Google Scholar
  151. Nilsson, J. E., Berkel, L. A., Flores, L. Y., & Lucas, M. S. (2004). Utilization rate and presenting concerns of international students at a university counselling centre: Implications for outreach programming. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 19, 49–59. Scholar
  152. Norris, E. M., & Gillespie, J. (2005). Study abroad: Stepping stone to a successful international career. NACE Journal, 65(3), 30–36.Google Scholar
  153. Norris, E. M., & Gillespie, J. (2009). How study abroad shapes global careers: Evidence from the United States. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(3), 382–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. OECD. (2012). Approaches to internationalisation and their implications for strategic management and institutional practice a guide for higher education institutions. Available at Accessed 8 Jan 2018.
  155. Olson, C., Green, M., & Hill, B. (2006). A handbook for advancing comprehensive internationalization: What institutions can do and what students should learn. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.Google Scholar
  156. Owens, A. R., & Loomes, S. L. (2010). Managing and resourcing a program of social integration initiatives for international university students: What are the benefits? Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management, 32, 275–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Paige, R. M., Fry, G. W., Stallman, E. M., Josic, J., & Jon, J. (2009). Study abroad for global engagement: The long-term impact of mobility experiences. Intercultural Education, 20, S29–S44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Paltridge, T., Mayson, S., & Schapper, J. (2012). Covering the gap: Social inclusion, international students and the role of local government. Australian Universities’ Review, 54(2), 29–39.Google Scholar
  159. Park, C. (2005). New variant PhD: The changing nature of the doctorate in the UK. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 27(2), 189–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Park, C. (2007). Redefining the doctorate (Higher Education Academy Discussion Paper).Google Scholar
  161. Perry, L. B., & Southwell, L. (2011). Developing intercultural understanding and skills: Models and approaches. Intercultural Education, 22(6), 453–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Phelps, J. M. (2016). International doctoral students’ navigations of identity and belonging in a globalizing university. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 11, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rahman, O., & Rollock, D. (2004). Acculturation, competence, and mental health among South Asian students in the United States. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 32(3), 130–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rienties, B., & Nolan, E-M. (2014). Understanding friendship and learning networks of international and host students using longitudinal social network analysis. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 41, 165–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Robinson-Pant, A. (2009). Changing academies: Exploring international PhD students’ perspectives on ‘host’ and ‘home’ universities. Higher Education Research & Development, 28(4), 417–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Rosenthal, D., Russell, J., & Thomson, G. (2006). A growing experience: The health and the well-being of international students at the University of Melbourne. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  167. Ryan, J. (2011). Teaching and learning for international students: Towards a transcultural approach. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 17(6), 631–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Ryan, J. (2012). Internationalisation of doctoral education: Possibilities for new knowledge and understandings. Australian Universities’ Review, 54(1), 55–63.Google Scholar
  169. Salisbury, M. H. (2011). The effect of study abroad on intercultural competence among undergraduate college students. PhD thesis, University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  170. Sanchez, C. M., Fornerino, M., & Zhang, M. (2006). Motivations and the intent to study abroad among U.S., French, and Chinese students. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 18(1), 27–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sato, T., & Hodge, S. R. (2009). Asian international doctoral students’ experiences at two American universities: Assimilation, accommodation, and resistance. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 2(3), 136–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Sawir, E. (2005). Language difficulties of international students in Australia: The effects of prior learning experience. International Education Journal, 6(5), 567–580.Google Scholar
  173. Sawir, E. (2013). Internationalisation of higher education curriculum: The contribution of international students. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 11(3), 359–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Scott, P. (2006). Internationalising higher education—A global perspective. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 13–28). Durban: IEASA.Google Scholar
  175. Sherry, M., Thomas, P., & Chui, W. H. (2010). International students: A vulnerable student population. Higher Education, 60, 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Skrbiš, Z., Western, M., Tranter, B., Hogan, D., Coates, R., Smith, J., & Mayall, M. (2011). Expecting the unexpected: Young people’s expectations about marriage and family. Journal of Sociology, 48(1), 63–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Skyrme, G. (2007). Entering the university: The differentiated experience of two Chinese international students in a New Zealand university. Studies in Higher Education, 32(3), 357–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Smeby, J., & Trondal, J. (2005). Globalisation or Europeanisation? International contact among university staff. Higher Education, 49, 449–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Son, J., & Park, S. (2014). Academic experiences of international PhD students in Australian higher education: From an EAP program to a PhD program. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 9(1), 26–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Spencer-Oatey, H., & Dauber, D. (2017). Internationalisation and the development of ‘global graduates’: Hearing the students’ voices (GlobalPAD Working papers). GlobalPAD Open House. Available at, Accessed 20 Jan 2018.
  181. Stein, S. (2016). Rethinking the ethics of internationalization: Five challenges for higher education. InterActions: UCLA Journal of Education and Information Studies, 12(2), 1–23.Google Scholar
  182. Stone, N. (2006). Conceptualising intercultural effectiveness for university teaching. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10, 334–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sue, E., & Rawlings, M. (2013). Preparedness of Chinese students for American culture and communicating in English. Journal of International Students, 3(1), 330–341.Google Scholar
  184. Swain, J., & Hammond, C. (2011). The motivations and outcomes of studying for part-time mature students in higher education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 30(5), 591–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Tang, S. Y. F., & Choi, P. L. (2004). The development of personal, intercultural and professional competence in international field experience in initial teacher education. Asia Pacific Education Review, 5(1), 50–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Taylor, J. (2010). The management of internationalization in higher education. In F. Maringe & N. Foskett (Eds.), Globalization and internationalisation in higher education: Theoretical, strategic and management perspectives (pp. 97–107). London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  187. Teichler, U. (2009). Internationalisation of higher education: European experiences. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10(1), 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Teichler, U. (2010). The many forms of internationalisation. In R. Smolarczyk (Ed.), Going international: HRK conference on internationalisation strategies (pp. 21–41). Bonn: Hochschulrektorenkonferenz, Beiträge zur Hochschulpolitik.Google Scholar
  189. Teichler, U. (2017). Internationalisation trends in higher education and the changing role of international student mobility. Journal of International Mobility, 5(1), 177–216. Scholar
  190. Tian, M., & Lowe, J. (2009). Existentialist internationalisation and the Chinese student experience in English universities. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 39(5), 659–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Tsouroufli, M. (2015). Hybridity, identities and inclusion of international PhD students in England. Interdisciplinary perspectives on equality and diversity, 1(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
  192. Universities UK. (2017). The economic impact of UK universities, 2014–15. Available at
  193. Wachter, B. (2003). An introduction: Internationalization at home in context. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(1), 41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Wamboye, E., Adekola, A., & Sergi, B. S. (2015). Internationalisation of the campus and curriculum: Evidence from the US institutions of higher learning. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 37(4), 385–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Ward, C. (2001). The impact of international students on domestic students and host institutions. Accessed 12 Feb 2018.
  196. Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  197. Ward, C., Leong, C. H., & Low, M. (2004). Personality and sojourner adjustment. An exploration of the big five and the cultural fit proposition. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(2), 137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Wei, H. (2013). An empirical study on the determinants of international student mobility: A global perspective. Higher Education, 66(1), 105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Wilkins, S., Shams, F., & Huisman, J. (2013). The decision-making and changing behavioural dynamics of potential higher education students: The impacts of increasing tuition fees in England. Educational Studies, 39, 125–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Wu, Q. (2014). Motivations and decision-making processes of mainland Chinese students for undertaking master’s programs abroad. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(5), 426–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Wu, Q. (2015). Re-examining the “Chinese learner”: A case study of mainland Chinese students’ learning experiences at British universities. Higher Education, 70(4), 753–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Wu, W., & Hammond, M. (2011). Challenges of university adjustment in the UK: A study of East Asian Master’s degree students. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 35(3), 423–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Wu, H., Garza, E., & Guzman, N. (2015). International student’s challenge and adjustment to college. Education Research International, 5(1), 2–10. Scholar
  204. Yeh, C. J., & Inose, M. (2003). International students’ reported English fluency, social support satisfaction, and social connectedness as predictors of acculturative stress. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 16, 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Yi, J. K., Lin, J. C. G., & Kishimoto, Y. (2003). Utilization of counselling services by international students. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30(4), 333–342.Google Scholar
  206. Yoon, E., & Portman, T. A. A. (2004). Critical issues of literature on counselling international students. Journal of Multicultural Counselling and Development, 32(1), 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Yu, B. (2016). Travelling a thousand miles: Determinants of cross-cultural adaptation of Asian students in Australia. In R. B. King & A. B. I. Bernardo (Eds.), The psychology of Asian learners (pp. 441–457). Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Yu, B., & Wright, E. (2016). Socio-cultural adaptation, academic adaptation and satisfaction of international higher degree research students in Australia. Tertiary Education and Management, 22(1), 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Zahidi, A. (2014). Studying at a Western university: An Asian perspective. In C. McMaster & C. Murphy (Eds.), Postgraduate study in Aotearoa New Zealand: Surviving and succeeding (pp. 199–208). Wellington: NZCER Press.Google Scholar
  210. Zhang, Y. (2016). International students in transition: Voices of Chinese doctoral students in a U.S. research university. Journal of International Students, 6(1), 175–194.Google Scholar
  211. Zhang, Y., Sun, J., & Hagedorn, L. S. (2013). Studying overseas: Factors impacting intention of female students in Mainland China. Education Publications, 3(2), 140–154.Google Scholar
  212. Zhou, J. (2014). Persistence motivations of Chinese doctoral students in science, technology, engineering, and math. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 7(3), 177–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Institute of Fashion TechnologyBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations