Adrenal Medulla Chemo Sensitivity Does Not Compensate the Lack of Hypoxia Driven Carotid Body Chemo Reflex in Guinea Pigs
Guinea pigs (GP), originally from the Andes, have absence of hypoxia-driven carotid body (CB) reflex. Neonatal mammals have an immature CB chemo reflex and respond to hypoxia with metabolic changes arising from direct effects of hypoxia on adrenal medulla (AM). Our working hypothesis is that adult GP would mimic neonatal mammals. Plasma epinephrine (E) has an AM origin, while norepinephrine (NE) is mainly originated in sympathetic endings, implying that specific GP changes in plasma E/NE ratio, and in blood glucose and lactate levels during hypoxia would be observed. Experiments were performed on young adult GP and rats. Hypoxic ventilation (10% O2) increased E and NE plasma levels similarly in both species but PaO2 was lower in GP than in rats. Plasma E/NE ratio in GP was higher (≈1.0) than in rats (≈0.5). The hypoxia-evoked increases in blood glucose and lactate were smaller in GP than in the rat. The AM of both species contain comparable E content, but NE was four times lower in GP than in rats. GP superior cervical ganglion also had lower NE content than rats and an unusual high level of dopamine, a negative modulator of sympathetic transmission. Isolated AM from GP released half of E and one tenth of NE than the rat AM, and hypoxia did not alter the time course of CA outflow. These data indicate the absence of direct effects of hypoxia on AM in the GP, and a lower noradrenergic tone in this species. Pathways for hypoxic sympatho-adrenal system activation in GP are discussed.
KeywordsSympathetic activity Hypoxia Blood glucose Blood lactate Catecholamine
This work was supported by Grants BFU2015-63706R (MINECO, FEDER-UE) and CIBER CB06/06/0050 from ISCiii (Spain).
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