Advertisement

Introduction and Context

  • Oscar Fitch-Roy
  • Jenny Fairbrass
Chapter
Part of the Progressive Energy Policy book series (PEP)

Abstract

This chapter surveys the historical development of climate and energy policy in the EU and the attendant scholarly attention paid to environmental and climate policy and politics. The significance of the 2030 framework for the future direction of EU climate mitigation efforts is set out, the authors arguing that the policy represents a distinct shift towards technology neutrality. Following an overview of the literature on EU interest groups and socio-technical transitions, the chapter concludes by identifying the impact of interest groups on the policy agenda as the focus of the study.

Keywords

European Union Climate policy Energy policy Socio-technical transitions Interest groups Agenda-setting 

References

  1. Adelle, C., & Anderson, J. (2013). Lobby Groups. In A. Jordan & C. Adelle (Eds.), Environmental Policy in the EU: Actors, Institutions and Processes. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Azar, C., & Sandén, B. A. (2011). The Elusive Quest for Technology-Neutral Policies. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 1(1), 135–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balanyá, B., et al. (2003). Europe Inc: Regional and Global Restructuring and the Rise of Corporate Power (2nd ed.). London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baumgartner, F. R., et al. (2009). Lobbying and Policy Change: Who Wins, Who Loses, and Why. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benson, D., & Russel, D. (2015, January). Patterns of EU Energy Policy Outputs: Incrementalism or Punctuated Equilibrium? West European Politics, 38(1), 37–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birchfield, V. L. (2011). The Role of EU Institutions in Energy Policy Formation. In V. L. Birchfield & J. Duffield (Eds.), Toward a Common European Union Energy Policy (pp. 235–262). London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birkland, T. A. (2010). An Introduction to the Policy Process: Theories, Concepts and Models of Public Policy Making. Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Bouwen, P. (2002). Corporate Lobbying in the European Union: The Logic of Access. Journal of European Public Policy, 9(3), 365–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buchan, D. (2009). Energy and Climate Change: Europe at the Crossroads. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Buchan, D. (2013). Why Europe’s Energy and Climate Policies are Coming Apart. Available at: https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/SP-28.pdf. Accessed 20 Mar 2014.
  11. Buchan, D., & Keay, M. (2014). The EU’s New Energy and Climate Goals for 2030: Under-Ambitious and Over-Bearing? Available at: https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/The-EUs-new-energy-and-climate-goals-for-2030.pdf. Accessed 20 Mar 2014.
  12. Bürgin, A. (2015). National Binding Renewable Energy Targets for 2020, but Not for 2030 Anymore: Why the European Commission Developed from a Supporter to a Brakeman. Journal of European Public Policy, 22(5), 690–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cameron, P. D. (2011). The EU and Energy Security: A Critical Review of the Legal Issues. In A. Antoniadis, R. Schütze, & E. Spaventa (Eds.), The European Union and Global Emergencies: A Law and Policy Analysis (pp. 125–166). Portland: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  14. Cherp, A., et al. (2016, May). Comparing Electricity Transitions: A Historical Analysis of Nuclear, Wind and Solar Power in Germany and Japan. Energy Policy, 101, 612–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cherp, A., et al. (2018, September 2017). Integrating Techno-economic, Socio-technical and Political Perspectives on National Energy Transitions: A Meta-theoretical Framework. Energy Research and Social Science, 37, 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cobb, R., & Elder, C. D. (1972). Participation in American Politics: The Dynamics of Agenda Building. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  17. de Cock, C. (2010). iLobby.eu: Survival Guide to EU Lobbying. Delft: Eburon.Google Scholar
  18. Coen, D. (1997). The Evolution of the Large Firm as a Political Actor in the European Union. Journal of European Public Policy, 4(1), 91–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coen, D. (2007). Empirical and Theoretical Studies in EU Lobbying. Journal of European Public Policy, 14(3), 333–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Curtin, D. (2003). Private Interest Representation or Civil Society Deliberation? A Contemporary Dilemma for European Union Governance. Social and Legal Studies, 12, 55–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dahl, R. A. (1978). Pluralism Revisited. Comparative Politics, 10(2), 191–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Delreux, T., & Happaerts, S. (2016). Environmental Policy and Politics in the European Union. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dimitrov, R. S. (2010). Inside UN Climate Change Negotiations: The Copenhagen Conference. Review of Policy Research, 27(6), 795–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dryzek, J., & Dunleavy, P. (2009). Theories of the Democratic State. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Duffield, J., & Birchfield, V. L. (2011). Toward a Common European Union Energy Policy. In J. S. Duffield & V. L. Birchfield (Eds.), Problems, Progress, and Prospects (235–262). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  26. Dupont, C. (2016). Climate Policy Integration into EU Energy Policy: Progress and Prospects. Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Dür, A., & De Bièvre, D. (2007). The Question of Interest Group Influence. Journal of Public Policy, 27(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Duscha, V., Held, A., & del Rio, P. (2016). An Economic Analysis of the Interactions Between Renewable Support and Other Climate and Energy Policies. Energy & Environment, 28(1–2), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eikeland, P. O. (2008). EU Internal Energy Market Policy: New Dynamics in the Brussels Policy Game? Available at: https://www.fni.no/getfile.php/132068/Filer/Publikasjoner/FNI-R1408.pdf. Accessed 13 Feb 2014.
  30. Eikeland, P. O. (2011). The Third Internal Energy Market Package: New Power Relations Among Member States, EU Institutions and Non-State Actors? Journal of Common Market Studies, 49(2), 243–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eikeland, P. O. (2012). EU Energy Policy Integration—Stakeholders, Institutions and Issue-Linkages. Available at: https://www.fni.no/getfile.php/132050/Filer/Publikasjoner/FNI-R1312.pdf. Accessed 13 Feb 2014.
  32. Eising, R. (2002). Policy Learning in Embedded Negotiations: Explaining EU Electricity Liberalization Policy Learning in Embedded Negotiations: Explaining EU Electricity Liberalization. International Organization, 56(1), 85–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elzen, B., Geels, F. W., & Green, K. (2004). System Innovation and the Transition to Sustainability. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Euractiv. (2014). Poland says it “won” at the EU summit. Available at: http://www.euractiv.com/sections/energy/poland-says-it-won-eu-summit-309494. Accessed 24 Nov 2014.
  35. European Commission. (2009). Directive 2009/72/EC Concerning Common Rules for the Internal Market in Electricity and Repealing Directive 2003/54/EC. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32003L0054&from=EN. Accessed 13 Feb 2014.
  36. European Commission. (2013). Green Paper: A 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policies. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1/2013/EN/1-2013-169-EN-F1-1.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2014.
  37. European Commission. (2014a). Impact Assessment—A Policy Framework for Climate and Energy in the Period from 2020 to 2030. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52014DC0015&from=EN. Accessed 4 Feb 2014.
  38. European Commission. (2014b). Minutes of the 2072nd Meeting of the Commission Held in Brussels (Berlaymont) on Wednesday 22 January. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/10061/2014/EN/10061-2014-2072-EN-F1-1.Pdf. Accessed 20 Apr 2016.
  39. European Commission. (2017). Proposed Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:f9f04518-b7dc-11e6-9e3c-01aa75ed71a1.0001.02/DOC_1&format=PDF. Accessed 22 Feb 2018.
  40. European Council. (2009). 29/30 October 2009: Conclusions. Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/110889.pdf. Accessed 31 Mar 2016.
  41. European Council. (2014). European Council (23 and 24 October 2014) Conclusions on 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework. Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/145397.pdf. Accessed 24 Oct 2014.
  42. European Environment Agency. (2014). Trends and Projections in Europe 2014: Tracking Progress Towards Europe’s Climate and Energy Targets for 2020. Available at: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/trends-and-projections-in-europe-2014/at_download/file. Accessed 28 Oct 2014.
  43. European Environment Agency. (2016). Annual European Union Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–2012 and Inventory Report 2014. Available at: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/european-union-greenhouse-gas-inventory-2014. Accessed 22 Feb 2018.
  44. European Parliament. (2014). European Elections 2014. Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/us/en/elections_2014.html;jsessionid=ABD017EA7C44EE440340530246C59FAA. Accessed 3 June 2014.
  45. European Parliament. (2017). Minutes: Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, Meeting of 27 November 2017, 15.00–18.30, and 28 November 2017, 9.00–12.30 and 14.30–18.30. Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=COMPARL&reference=PE-615.215&format=PDF&language=EN&secondRef=01. Accessed 22 Feb 2018.
  46. Fuchs, D., & Feldhoff, B. (2016). Passing the Scepter, Not the Buck: Long Arms in EU Climate Politics. Journal of Sustainable Development, 9(6), 58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Geels, F. W. (2002). Technological Transitions as Evolutionary Reconfiguration Processes: A Multi-Level Perspective and a Case-Study. Research Policy, 31(8–9), 1257–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Geiger, A. (2012). EU Lobbying Handbook (2nd ed.). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.Google Scholar
  49. Gray, V., & Lowery, D. (1996). A Niche Theory of Interest Representation. The Journal of Politics, 58(1), 91–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Greenwood, J. (2011). Interest Representation in the European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Greenwood, J., & Aspinwall, M. D. (1998). Collective Action in the European Union: Interests and the New Politics of Associability. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Groen, L., Niemann, A., & Oberthür, S. (2012). The EU as a Global Leader? The Copenhagen and Cancun UN Climate Change Negotiations, 8(2), 173–191.Google Scholar
  53. Haas, E. B. (1958). The Uniting of Europe: Political, Social and Economic Forces, 1950–1957. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press (Reprint, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2003).Google Scholar
  54. Herweg, N. (2016). Explaining European Agenda-Setting Using the Multiple Streams Framework: The Case of European Natural Gas Regulation. Policy Sciences, 49(1), 13–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hoffmann, S. (1966). Obstinate or Obsolete? The Fate of the Nation-State and The Case of Western Europe. Daedalus, 95(3), 862–915.Google Scholar
  56. IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report Summary Chapter for Policymakers. Available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_SPM.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug 2016.
  57. Jones, B. D., & Baumgartner, F. R. (2005). The Politics of Attention: How Government Prioritizes Problems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  58. Kanellakis, M., Martinopoulos, G., & Zachariadis, T. (2013). European Energy Policy—A Review. Energy Policy, 62, 1020–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kern, F., & Howlett, M. (2009). Implementing Transition Management as Policy Reforms: A Case Study of the Dutch Energy Sector. Policy Sciences, 42(4), 391–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Klüver, H. (2011). Lobbying in Coalitions: Interest Group Influence on European Union Policy-Making. Available at: https://www.nuffield.ox.ac.uk/politics/papers/2011/HeikeKluever_workingpaper_2011_04.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug 2016.
  61. Kohler-Koch, B., & Eising, R. (2003). Transformation of Governance in the European Union. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. Lindblom, C. E. (1982). The Market as Prison. The Journal of Politics, 44(2), 324–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Long, T., & Loerinczi, L. (2009). NGOs as Gatekeepers: A Green Vision. In D. Coen & J. Richardson (Eds.), Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors, and Issues (pp. 169–188). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Lowery, D., & Gray, V. (1998). The Dominance of Institutions in Interest Representation: A Test of Seven Explanations. American Journal of Political Science, 42(1), 231–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lowery, D., & Gray, V. (2004). A Neopluralist Perspective on Research on Organized Interests. Political Research Quarterly, 57(1), 164–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lowery, D., & Gray, V. (2005). Sisyphus Meets the Borg. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 17(1), 41–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lucas, N. J. D. (1977). Energy and the European Communities. London: Europa Publications.Google Scholar
  68. Machiavelli, N. (1532). The Prince. London: Penguin (Reprint, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).Google Scholar
  69. Mahoney, C. (2007). Lobbying Success in the United States and the European Union. Journal of Public Policy, 27(1), 35–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Majone, G. (1994). The Rise of the Regulatory State in Europe. West European Politics, 17(3), 77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Matlary, J. H. (1998). Energy Policy in the European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  72. Mazey, S., & Richardson, J. (2001). Interest Groups and EU Policy-Making: Organisational Logic and Venue Shopping. In J. Richardson (Ed.), European Union: Power and Policy-Making (pp. 247–268). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. McFarland, A. S. (2007). Neopluralism. Annual Review of Political Science, 10(1), 45–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McGowan, F. (2011). The UK and EU Energy Policy: From Awkward Partner to Active Protagonist? In V. L. Birchfield & J. Duffield (Eds.), Toward a Common European Union Energy Policy (pp. 187–213). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Meadowcroft, J. (2009). What About the Politics? Sustainable Development, Transition Management, and Long Term Energy Transitions. Policy Sciences, 42(4), 323–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Meadowcroft, J. (2011). Engaging with the Politics of Sustainability Transitions. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 1(1), 70–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Oberthür, S. (2011). The European Union’s Performance in the International Climate Change Regime. Journal of European Integration, 33, 667–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and Democratic Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Princen, S. (2007). Agenda-setting in the European Union: A Theoretical Exploration and Agenda for Research. Journal of European Public Policy, 14(1), 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Princen, S. (2018). Agenda-Setting and Framing in Europe. The Palgrave Handbook of Public Administration and Management in Europe (pp. 535–551). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rawcliffe, P. (1995). Making Inroads: Transport Policy and the British Environmental Movement. Environment, 37(3), 16–36.Google Scholar
  82. Rawcliffe, P. (1998). Environmental Pressure Groups in Transition. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Richardson, J., & Coen, D. (2009). Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors, and Issues. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Rosamond, B. (2000). Theories of European Integration. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  85. Rowlands, I. H. (2005). The European Directive on Renewable Electricity: Conflicts and Compromises. Energy Policy, 33(8), 965–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Saurugger, S. (2008). Interest Groups and Democracy in the European Union. West European Politics, 31(6), 1274–1291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. van Schendelen, M. P. C. M. (2013). The Art of Lobbying the EU: More Machiavelli in Brussels. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Schmitter, P. C. (1974). Still the Century of Corporatism? The Review of Politics, 36(1), 85–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schmitter, P. C. (1977). Modes of Interest Intermediation and Models of Societal Change in Western Europe. Comparative Political Studies, 10(1), 7–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schuman, R. (1950). Schuman Declaration. Available at: https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/symbols/europe-day/schuman-declaration_en. Accessed 31 Oct 2016.
  91. Skjærseth, J. B. (2013). Unpacking the EU Climate and Energy Package: Causes, Content and Consequences. Available at: https://www.fni.no/getfile.php/131681/Filer/Publikasjoner/FNI-R0213.pdf. Accessed 16 Jan 2015.
  92. Skjærseth, J. B. (2016). Linking EU Climate and Energy Policies: Policy-Making, Implementation and Reform. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 16(4), 509–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Skovgaard, J. (2013). The Limits of Entrapment: The Negotiations on EU Reduction Targets, 2007–11. Journal of Common Market Studies, 51(6), 1141–1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Solomon, B. D., & Krishna, K. (2011). The Coming Sustainable Energy Transition: History, Strategies, and Outlook. Energy Policy, 39(11), 7422–7431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stirling, A. (2010). Keep it Complex. Nature, 468(7327), 1029–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stirling, A. (2011). Pluralising Progress: From Integrative Transitions to Transformative Diversity. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 1(1), 82–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stirling, A. (2014). Transforming Power: Social Science and the Politics of Energy Choices. Energy Research and Social Science, 1, 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. The Royal Society. (2017). Climate Updates: What Have We Learnt Since the IPCC 5th Assessment Report?. London: The Royal Society.Google Scholar
  99. Verbong, G., & Geels, F. W. (2007). The Ongoing Energy Transition: Lessons from a Socio-technical, Multi-level Analysis of the Dutch Electricity System (1960–2004). Energy Policy, 35(2), 1025–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Warleigh, A. (2006). Making Citizens from the Market? NGOs and the Representation of Interests. In R. Bellamy, D. Castiglione, & J. Shaw (Eds.), Making European Citizens: Civic Inclusion in a Transnational Context (pp. 118–132). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wettestad, J., Eikeland, P. O., & Nilsson, M. (2012). EU Climate and Energy Policy: A Hesitant Supranational Turn? Global Environmental Politics, 12(2), 67–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wettestad, J., & Jevnaker, T. (2016). Rescuing EU Emissions Trading: The Climate Policy Flagship. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Weyman-Jones, T. G. (1986). Energy in Europe: Issues and Policies. London and New York: Methuen.Google Scholar
  104. Woll, C. (2007). Leading the Dance? Power and Political Resources of Business Lobbyists. Journal of Public Policy, 27(1), 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ydersbond, I. M. (2016). Where Is Power Really Situated in the EU? Oslo: Fridtjof Nansen Institute.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Energy Policy GroupUniversity of ExeterPenrynUK
  2. 2.Norwich Business SchoolUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK

Personalised recommendations