PET/CT in Immunodeficiency Disorders

  • Alfred Ankrah
  • Mike SathekgeEmail author
Part of the Clinicians’ Guides to Radionuclide Hybrid Imaging book series (CGRHI)


Immunodeficiency disorders encompass a wide array of clinical conditions in which there is an aberration of one or more of the components of the immune system. These disorders may be primary or secondary to some other condition. Primary disorders usually become apparent in childhood but may present later in life. Secondary immunodeficiency disorders are more common [1, 2]. The last few decades have witnessed a steady increase in the population with immunodeficiency disorders. This is as a result of a number of factors. The high prevalence of HIV with 36.7 million infections worldwide is an important contributing factor [3]. In addition, advances in medical intervention have increased the immunocompromised population considerably. There are more patients in the posttransplant state who are on immunosuppressive therapy, more people using potent anti-cancer chemotherapy, and an increased survival of patients with hematologic disorders and malignancies [1]. Also, chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus and the use of drugs such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressant in inflammatory disease have added to the numbers. Finally, our increased understanding of underlying mechanism of immunosuppression with the discovery of new primary immunodeficiency has also contributed to this increase [1, 4].


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nuclear MedicineUniversity of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic HospitalPretoriaSouth Africa

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