Advertisement

From ‘All Under Heaven’ to ‘China in the World’: Chinese Visual Imaginations from the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

  • Laura PflugEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)

Abstract

The second half of the nineteenth and the first decades of the twentieth century saw the encroachment of foreign powers on China combined with internal political and socio-economic crises, revolts and power struggles. The subsequent reshuffle of territorial control against the backdrop of the so-called global condition challenged Chinese intellectuals to confront a new worldview as well as geographical ideas and techniques from other countries. They had to reassess and enhance their geographic and cartographic knowledge, include new geographies, and question China’s position in the world. This process was accompanied by travel, study abroad, the translation of maps from other countries as well as the founding of Chinese geographical societies and the production of new Chinese maps. Based on Chinese cartographic images and atlases, this paper will examine visualizations of China in its place ‘under heaven’, as depicted on nineteenth-century maps of the tianxia 天下 variety, and cartographic representations of China and the world from the late Qing and Republican times, when China was in the process of reinventing and thus remapping itself. In addition, it will introduce some of the creators of these maps, whose biographies mirror intellectual and cartographic currents of their time.

References

  1. Amelung I (2007) New maps for the modernizing state. Western cartographic knowledge and its application in 19th and 20th century China. In: Bray F, Dorofeeva-Lichtmann V, Métailié (eds) Graphics and texts in the production of technical knowledge in China. The warp and the weft. Brill, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  2. Assmann J (2011) Communicative and cultural memory. In: Meusburger P et al (eds) Cultural memories. The Geographical point of view. Springer, Dordrecht et al, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  3. Bright C, Geyer M (2015) The global condition. In: Northrop D (ed) A companion to world history. Wyley-Blackwell, Malden, pp 1850–2010Google Scholar
  4. Callahan WA (2009) The cartography of national humiliation and the emergence of China’s geobody. Publ Culture 21(1):141–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Callahan WA (2011) Tianxia, empire and the world. Chinese visions of world-order for the twenty-first century. In: Callahan WA, Barabantseva E (eds) China orders the world. Normative soft power and foreign policy. Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Cams M (2017) Companions in geography. East-west collaboration in the mapping of Qing China (c.1685–1735). Brill, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  7. Dai H 戴鶴 (2009) Zou shi yudi shijia de chuan cheng yu chengjiu 鄒氏輿地世家的傳承與成就 [The inheritance and achievements of the Renowned Zou family of geographers]. Xiangtan shifan xueyuan xuebao 湘潭師範學院學報 (shehui kexue ban 社會科學版) [J Xiangtan Normal Univ (Soc Sci Ed)] 31(3):102–103Google Scholar
  8. Da Qing wannian yitong dili quantu 大清萬年一統地理全圖 [Complete Geographical Map of the Everlasting Unity of the Great Qing] (n.d.) Bibliothèque nationale de France (Gallica). http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b550095891/f1.item.r=全圖. Last accessed 25 Nov 2017Google Scholar
  9. Faure D (1997) A documentary history of Hong Kong. Society. Hong Kong University Press, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  10. Huangyu quanlan tu 皇輿全覽圖 [Map of a complete view of imperial land]. 1943, reproduced from 1721 woodcut edition. Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/item/74650033. Last accessed 29 Nov 2017
  11. Hostetler L (2001) Qing colonial enterprise. Ethnography and cartography in early modern China. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  12. Jiang L 江凌 (2008) Wan Qing shiqi Wuchang yudi xuehui de yutu chuban ji qi jingying tedian 晚清時期武昌輿地學會的輿圖出版及其經營特点 [The characteristics of the cartographic publications and the commercial aspects of the late Qing geographic association in Wuchang]. Jianghan daxue xuebao (renwen kexue) [J Jianghan Univ (Humaities)] 27(6):93–96Google Scholar
  13. Jingban tianwen quantu 京板天文全圖 [Capital edition of an astronomy [based] complete map]. 1780? Bibliothèque nationale de France (Gallica). http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b53109924m. Last accessed 31 Jul 2017
  14. Karl RE (1998) Creating Asia. China in the world at the beginning of the twentieth century. Am Hist Rev 103(4):1096–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lu LZ 盧良志 (2008) Yapian zhanzheng hou de shijie ditu ji 鴉片戰争後的世界地圖集 [Atlases from the time after the opium war]. Guotu ziyuan 國土資源 [Land & resources] 11:56–59Google Scholar
  16. Luo Z (2008) From “Tianxia” (all under heaven) to “the world”. Changes in late Qing intellectualsʼ conceptions of human society. Soc Sci China 29(2):93–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Matten MA (2016) Imagining a postnational world. Hegemony and space in modern China. Brill, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  18. Norvenius M (2012) Images of an empire. Chinese geography textbooks of the early 20th century. PhD dissertation, Stockholm University (Department of Oriental languages)Google Scholar
  19. Pegg RA (2014) Cartographic traditions in East Asian maps. University of Hawaii Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith RJ (1998) Mapping Chinaʼs world. Cultural cartography in late imperial times. In: Yeh W (ed) Landscape, culture and power in Chinese society. Institute of East Asian studies, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  21. Tianxia zong yutu 天下總輿圖 [Map of the comprehensive area of all under heaven]. 1890? Library of congress. https://www.loc.gov/item/2002626780/. Last accessed 20 Nov 2017
  22. Wagner RG (2011) China “asleep” and “awakening”. A study in conceptualizing asymmetry and coping with it. Transcultural studies 1:4–139, e-journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.11588/ts.2011.1.7315. Last accessed 31 May 2017
  23. Wang G (2013) Renewal. The Chinese state and the new global history. The Chinese University Press, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  24. Yee CDK (1994) Traditional Chinese cartography and the myth of westernization. In: Harley JB, Woodward D (eds) The history of cartography. Cartography in the traditional East and Southeast Asian societies, vol 2, bk 2. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  25. Yu W, Xu S (2015) Map plotting and naming evolution of South China sea islands during republican period. J Hist Stud 1(1):66–89Google Scholar
  26. Zarrow P (2015) Knowledge, society and textbooks in a modernizing world, 1902–1937. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhang JJ 張佳靜 (2013) Mokatuo touying zai wan Qing de yingyong yu chuanbo 墨卡托投影在晚清的應用與傳播 [The use and transmission of the Mercator projection during the Late Qing]. Guangxi minzu daxue xuebao 廣西民族大學學報 (ziran kexue ban 自然科學版) [J Guanxi Univ Nationalities (Nat Sci Ed)] 19(2):30–36Google Scholar
  28. Zhang E (2017) Space, politics and cultural representation in modern China. Cartographies of revolution. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhao TY 趙汀陽 (2005) Tianxia tixi 天下體系. Shijie zhidu zhexue daolun 世界製度哲學導論 [The Tianxia system. An introduction to the philosophy of a world institution]. Jiangsu jiaoyu chubanshe, NanjingGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhou Y 周巖 (1998) Tu Sicong yu shijie yudi xueshe 屠思聰與世界輿地學社 [Tu Sicong and the study society of world geography]. Ditu 地圖 [Map] 1:30–31Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leibniz Institute for Regional GeographyLeipzigGermany

Personalised recommendations