Phycoremediation: A Green Technology for Nutrient Removal from Greywater

  • A. A. Wurochekke
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
  • Efaq Ali Noman
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 87)


Phycoremediation as a green technology relies on microalgae which have high potential to grow in greywater. The presence of high levels of nutrients is necessary for microalgae growth to improve the efficiency of this process. However, the main consideration of the phycoremediation process of greywater lies in the wastewater composition, the selection of microalgae strains with high potential to compete with the indigenous organisms in the greywater and remove nutrients and elements from greywater as well as microalgae, which possess the ability to survive under stressful environmental conditions. Besides, this process can be applied to individual houses. The cost of the phycoremediation process, source of microalgae and energy required are the main points which need to be discussed further. The study indicated that the phycoremediation process is most effective for the treatment of greywater. However, many aspects have to be evaluated in order to achieve the high-quality-treated greywater. In this chapter, the effectiveness of phycoremediation and the mechanism of nutrient removal are discussed. Most microalgae species exhibited greater efficiency in removing nitrogen compared to phosphorous due to the nature of the anabolic pathway of microalgae cells and the ability of nitrogen compounds to diffuse through the cell membrane faster than phosphorous compounds.


Algae Treatment Nutrient removal Alternative technology 



The authors wish to thank the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for supporting this research under FRGS vot 1574 and also the Research Management Centre (RMC) UTHM for providing grant IGSP U682 for this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Wurochekke
    • 1
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
    • 1
  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
    • 1
  • Efaq Ali Noman
    • 2
    • 3
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
    • 1
  1. 1.Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Parit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)PagohMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty Applied SciencesTaiz UniversityTaizYemen

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