Consequences of the Improper Disposal of Greywater

  • Efaq Ali Noman
  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
  • Balkis A. Talip
  • H. Nagao
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
  • Siti Asmah Bakar
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 87)


Discharge of greywater into the environment and natural water bodies is the main challenge in the management of greywater. The increase of greywater disposed into the environment has drawn serious attention from the society and the government who endeavour to find a safe alternative way for the disposal of these wastes. The implication for the improper disposal of greywater is associated with infectious agents. This is because the organisms are able to multiply in the environment and might reach the infective dose which causes several diseases in human and animals. In this chapter, the health risks and effects posed by pathogens and heavy metals in disposed greywater to the environment and humans are reviewed. The chapter discusses the level of risk for each component in greywater. It has appeared that eutrophication and water bloom are associated with the discharge of greywater into the natural water due to the high level of nutrients.


Discharge Health risk Heavy metals HABs Regulations 



The authors wish to thank the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for supporting this research under FRGS vot 1574 and also the Research Management Centre (RMC) UTHM for providing grant IGSP U682 for this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Efaq Ali Noman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
    • 3
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
    • 3
  • Balkis A. Talip
    • 4
  • H. Nagao
    • 5
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
    • 3
  • Siti Asmah Bakar
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)PagohMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty Applied SciencesTaiz UniversityTaizYemen
  3. 3.Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Parit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia
  4. 4.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Pagoh MuarMalaysia
  5. 5.School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains Malaysia (USM)George TownMalaysia

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