Disinfection Technologies for Household Greywater

  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
  • Efaq Ali Noman
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
  • Balkis A. Talip
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
  • Norli Ismail
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 87)


The treatment technologies for greywater are followed by the disinfection processes in order to achieve safe disposal into the environment. The disinfection technologies aim at reducing or minimising the concentrations of the pathogenic microorganism of greywater which have a high potential risk for humans and plants, and, thus, provide safe and aesthetically acceptable greywater that is appropriate for the purpose of irrigation. The disinfection processes include chemical (chlorination and ozonation), physical or mechanical (filtration process) and radiation disinfection (UV irradiation, solar disinfection (SODIS)). The degree of the disinfection process proposed must take into account the type of reuse and the risk of exposure to the population. In this chapter, the disinfection techniques of greywater are reviewed and discussed based on their efficiency to eliminate the pathogenic bacteria and other toxic by-products. The objective of this chapter was to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of disinfection processes. Among the several disinfectant technologies for greywater, SODIS appears to be the most potent technology which is widely applicable in most of the developing countries experiencing arid and semi-arid atmospheric conditions due to the high density of sunlight which is more effective for inactivating pathogenic microorganisms.


SODIS AOPs Pathogenic bacteria PGP Non-culture methods 



The authors wish to thank the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for supporting this research under FRGS vot 1574 and also the Research Management Centre (RMC) UTHM for providing grant IGSP U682 for this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adel Ali Saeed Al-Gheethi
    • 1
  • Efaq Ali Noman
    • 2
    • 3
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
    • 1
  • Balkis A. Talip
    • 4
  • Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
    • 1
  • Norli Ismail
    • 5
  1. 1.Micro-Pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Parit Raja, Batu PahatMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)PagohMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty Applied SciencesTaiz UniversityTaizYemen
  4. 4.Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST)Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)Pagoh MuarMalaysia
  5. 5.Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains Malaysia (USM)George TownMalaysia

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